Application of Aroma Precursors in Food Plant Raw Materials: Biotechnological Aspect




aroma precursor, food plant, lipid precursors, aroma development, plant enzymes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, aroma precursor's biotransformation, aromatic substances


An Author Correction to this article was published on 26 October 2023.

The article is devoted to the analysis of the main factors accompanying the use of aroma precursors, in particular, of a lipid nature, in food raw materials. The prerequisites for the impact on the precursors of aroma with the help of plant enzymes are given. The purpose of the article is to analyze the biotechnological aspect, which is based on enzymatic reactions with aroma precursors and enzymes of plant origin. Features of the mechanism of action of lipid precursors are highlighted, their diversity causing various characteristic reactions is analyzed, and possible end products of reactions with certain odors are noted. The attention is paid to the issue of the status of the naturalness of flavor precursors in food products, which varies in different countries. A scheme of factors influencing the formation of aroma from lipid precursors has been developed. The influence of pigments of carotenoid nature on the aroma is considered, namely: examples of instantaneous change of watermelon aroma to pumpkin one due to isomerization of carotenoids are given. The main factors of enzymatic formation of aroma from precursors of polyunsaturated fatty acids for their effective use by creating micromicelles are summarized. A way to overcome the barrier of interaction between lipid precursors of a hydrophobic nature and hydrophilic enzymes has been substantiated. It is proposed to accelerate enzymatic reactions under in vitro conditions and use the vacuum effect to overcome the barrier between enzymes and precursors. To explain the effect of vacuum in a system with enzymes, ideas about disjoining pressure and the reasonable expediency of its use are considered. A schematic process flow diagram for the restoration of aroma lost during the technological processing of raw materials is given; it demonstrates the factors for ensuring interfacial activation conditions for enzymes and aroma precursors.


Sandri A, Cecchini MP, Riello M, Zanini A, Nocini R, Fiorio M, et al. Pain, smell, and taste in adults: a narrative review of multisensory perception and interaction. Pain Ther. 2021 Jun;10(1):245-68. DOI: 10.1007/s40122-021-00247-y

Berčík J, Paluchová J, Neomániová K. Neurogastronomy as a tool for evaluating emotions and visual preferences of selected food served in different ways. Foods. 2021 Feb 7;10(2):354. DOI: 10.3390/foods10020354

Yuan B, Zhou S, Liu C, Zhang S, Li J, Liu A. Status of the application of exogenous enzyme technology for the development of natural plant resources. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2021 Mar;44(3):429-42. DOI: 10.1007/s00449-020-02463-w

Regulation (EC) No 1334/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on 16 December 2008 on flavourings and certain food ingredients with flavouring properties for use in and on foods and amending Council Regulation (EEC) No 1601/91, Regulations (EC) No 2232/96 and (EC) No 110/2008 and Directive 2000/13/EC. Off J Europ Union. 2008 Dec;L354/34.

Varelis P, Melton L, Shahidi F. Encyclopedia of food chemistry. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2018. 2194 p.

Ruiz J, Kiene F, Belda I, Fracassetti D, Marquina D, Navascués E, et al. Effects on varietal aromas during wine making: a review of the impact of varietal aromas on the flavor of wine. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Sep;103(18):7425-50. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-019-10008-9

Maasen K, Scheijen JLJM, Opperhuizen A, Stehouwer CDA, Van Greevenbroek MM, Schalkwijk CG. Quantification of dicarbonyl compounds in commonly consumed foods and drinks; presentation of a food composition database for dicarbonyls. Food Chem. 2021 Mar 1;339:128063. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128063

Dateo GP, Clapp RC, Mackay DAM, Hewitt EJ, Hasselstrom T. Identification of the volatile sulfur components of cooked cabbage and the nature of the precursors in the fresh vegetable. J Food Sci. 1957;22(5):440-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1957.tb17501.x

Hasselstrom T, Bailey S, Reese ET. Regeneration of food flavors through enzymatic action. Army Research Office Washington DC; 1962. p. 285-94. Accession Number AD0286640.

Schwimmer S. Alteration of the flavor of processed vegetables by enzyme preparations. J Food Sci. 1963;28(4):460-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1963.tb00227.x

Fernandes P. Enzymes in food processing: a condensed overview on strategies for better biocatalysts. Enzyme Res. 2010 Sep 29;2010:862537. DOI: 10.4061/2010/862537

Puchkova TA, Babitskaya VG, Scherba VV, Bisko NA, Poyedinok N. Polysaccharides of medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (L.:Fr.) link (Ascomycetes): production and composition. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2010;12(4):419-25. DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v12.i4.90

Savin M, Vrkatić A, Dedić D, Vlaški T, Vorgučin I, Bjelanović J, Jevtic M. additives in children's nutrition – a review of current events. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Oct 18;19(20):13452. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192013452

Khandpur N, Neri DA, Monteiro C, Mazur A, Frelut ML, Boyland E, et al. Ultra-processed food consumption among the paediatric population: an overview and call to action from the European childhood obesity group. Ann Nutr Metab. 2020;76(2):109-13. DOI: 10.1159/000507840

Hearty Á. FACET: providing an integrated and holistic approach to the exposure assessment of food chemicals. Nutrition Bull. 2010;35(4):340-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-3010.2010.01851.x

World Health Organization. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 2011;(966):1-136.

EFSA GMO Panel Working Group on Animal Feeding Trials. Safety and nutritional assess-ment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Mar;46 Suppl 1:S2-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.02.008

Valerio LG Jr, Arvidson KB, Chanderbhan RF, Contrera JF. Prediction of rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring chemicals in the human diet using high-throughput QSAR predictive modeling. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 1;222(1):1-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2007.03.012

Flavour precursors and Shrödinger’s cat. Flavour Horizons Bull. 2012;1:1-2.

Xu L, Zang E, Sun S, Li M. Main flavor compounds and molecular regulation mechanisms in fruits and vegetables. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2022 Jul 11:1-21. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2022.2097195

Bayindirli A. Enzymes in fruit and vegetable processing: chemistry and engineering ap-plications. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2010. 405 р.

Kanter JP, Honold PJ, Lüke D, Heiles S, Spengler B, Fraatz MA, et al. An enzymatic tan-dem reaction to produce odor-active fatty aldehydes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2022 Sep;106(18):6095-107. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-022-12134-3

Bangerth F, Song J, Streif J. Physiological impacts of fruit ripening and storage conditions on aroma volatile formation in apple and strawberry fruit: A review. HortScience. 2012;47(1):4-10. DOI: 10.21273/HORTSCI.47.1.4

Shahidi F, Hossain A. Role of lipids in food flavor generation. Molecules. 2022;27(15):5014. DOI: 10.3390/molecules27155014

Lamikanra O, Chen JC, Banks D, Hunter PA. Biochemical and microbial changes during the storage of minimally processed cantaloupe. J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Dec;48(12):5955-61. DOI: 10.1021/jf0000732

Deibler KD, Delwiche JM. Handbook of flavor characterization sensory analysis, chemistry, and physiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2004. 520 р.

Dudai N, Chaimovitsh D, Fischer R, Belanger F. Aroma as a factor in the breeding process of basil. Acta Hortic. 2010;860:167-71. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.860.24

Paniuta OO, Shabliĭ VA, Belava VN. Jasmonic acid and its participation in defence reactions of plant organism. Ukr Biokhim Zh. 2009 Mar-Apr; 81(2):14-26.

Adams TB, Gavin CL, Taylor SV, Waddell WJ, Cohen SM, Feron VJ, et al. The FEMA GRAS assessment of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and related substances used as flavor ingredients. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Sep;46(9):2935-67. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.06.082

Sun Y, Zeng L, Xue Y, Yang T, Cheng Z, Sun P. Effects of power ultrasound on the activity and structure of β-D-glucosidase with potentially aroma-enhancing capability. Food Sci Nutr. 2019 May 15;7(6):2043-9. DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.1035

Sun Y, Xu Q, Peng W, Xue Y, Sun P. Synergistic effects of ultrasound and β-d-glucosidase in aroma of orange juice. J Food Sci. 2021 Jun;86(6):2374-86. DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15671

Dubova G, Bezusov A, Melnyk O. Features of food flavored salt technology. Naukovì Pracì ONAHT. 2013;44(2):33-8.

Zhang C, Tian S. Peach fruit acquired tolerance to low temperature stress by accumulation of linolenic acid and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine in plasma membrane. Food Chem. 2010 Jun;120(3):864-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.11.029

Yu TH, Lin LY, Ho CT. Volatile compounds of blanched, fried blanched, and baked blanched garlic slices. J Agricult Food Chem. 1994;42(6):1342-7. DOI: 10.1021/jf00042a018

Gaonkar AG, Bagwe RP. Microemulsions in foods: challenges and applications. In: Adsorption and aggregation of surfactants in solution. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2002. p. 389-409.

El-Nokaly M, Hiler GD, McGrady J. Food microemulsion. United States patent 5,045,337. 1991 Sep 3.

Pisaniello L, Watson F, Siebert T, Francis L, Hixson JL. The varietal influence of flavour precursors from grape marc on monoterpene and C13-norisoprenoid profiles in wine as determined by membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) GC-MS. Molecules. 2022 Mar 22;27(7):2046. DOI: 10.3390/molecules27072046

Sato Y, Han J, Fukuda H, Mikami S. Enhancing monoterpene alcohols in sweet potato shochu using the diglycoside-specific β-primeverosidase. J Biosci Bioeng. 2018 Feb;125(2):218-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2017.08.012

González-Pombo P, Fariña L, Carrau F, Batista-Viera F, Brena BM. Aroma enhancement in wines using co-immobilized Aspergillus niger glycosidases. Food Chem. 2014 Jan 15;143:185-91. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.107

Mizutani M, Nakanishi H, Ema J, Ma SJ, Noguchi E, Inohara-Ochiai M, et al. Cloning of beta-primeverosidase from tea leaves, a key enzyme in tea aroma formation. Plant Physiol. 2002 Dec;130(4):2164-76. DOI: 10.1104/pp.102.011023

Gargouri M, Akacha N, Kotti F, Rejeb I. Voie de la lipoxygénase: valorisation d'huiles végétales et biosynthèse de flaveurs. Biotechnologie Agronomie Société et Environnement. 2008 Jan;12(2):185-202.

Akacha N, Gargouri M. Microbial and enzymatic technologies used for the production of natural aroma compounds: synthesis, recovery modeling, and bioprocesses. Food Bioprod Process. 2015 Apr;94:675-706. DOI: 10.1016/j.fbp.2014.09.011

Shi Y, Mandal R, Singh A, Pratap Singh A. Legume lipoxygenase: Strategies for application in food industry. Legume Sci. 2020;2(3):e44. DOI: 10.1002/leg3.44

Andreou A, Feussner I. Lipoxygenases – structure and reaction mechanism. Phytochemistry. 2009 Sep;70(13-14):1504-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.05.008

Ni Z, Wu Q, Zhou Z, Yang Y, Hu Q, Deng H, et al. Effects of turning over intensity on fatty acid metabolites in postharvest leaves of Tieguanyin oolong tea (Camellia sinensis). PeerJ. 2022 Jun 13;10:e13453. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.13453

Zamora R, Hidalgo FJ. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP) formation and fate: an example of the coordinate contribution of lipid oxidation and Maillard reaction to the production and elimination of processing-related food toxicants. RSC Adv. 2015 Jan;5(13):9709-21. DOI: 10.1039/C4RA15371E

Kontogianni VG, Gerothanassis IP. Analytical and structural tools of lipid hydroperoxides: present state and future perspectives. Molecules. 2022 Mar 25;27(7):2139. DOI: 10.3390/molecules27072139

Liavonchanka A, Feussner I. Lipoxygenases: occurrence, functions and catalysis. J Plant Physiol. 2006 Feb;163(3):348-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2005.11.006

Magri A, Petriccione M, Cerqueira MA, Gutiérrez TJ. Self-assembled lipids for food applications: A review. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2020 Nov;285:102279. DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2020.102279

Sukmanov V, Marynin A, Dubova H, Bezusov А, Voskoboіnik V. Study of aroma formation from lipids of the fruit raw material. Ukr Food J. 2016;5(4):629-43. DOI: 10.24263/2304-974X-2016-5-4-3

Noordermeer MA, Veldink GA, Vliegenthart JF. Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase: a plant cytochrome p450 enzyme involved in wound healing and pest resistance. Chembiochem. 2001 Aug 3;2(7-8):494-504. DOI: 10.1002/1439-7633(20010803)2:7/8<494::AID-CBIC494>3.0.CO;2-1

Damodaran S, Parkin KL. Fennema's food chemistry. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2008. 1214 р.

Hu Z, Shen YB, Luo YQ, Shen FY, Gao HB, Gao RF. Aldehyde volatiles emitted in succession from mechanically damaged leaves of poplar cuttings. J Plant Biol. 2008 Jul;51(4):269-275. DOI: 10.1007/BF03036126

Ryabova NY, Kiselev MA, Beskrovnyĭ AI, Balagurov AM. Investigation of the structure of multilayer lipid membranes by real-time neutron diffraction. Phys Solid State. 2010 May;52(5):1050-8. DOI: 10.1134/S1063783410050355

Shchukin ED, Zelenev AS. Physical-chemical mechanics of disperse systems and materials. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2015. 341 p.

Parisio G, Sperotto MM, Ferrarini A. Flip-flop of steroids in phospholipid bilayers: effects of the chemical structure on transbilayer diffusion. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Jul 25;134(29):12198-208. DOI: 10.1021/ja304007t

Liu J, Brown KL, Conboy JC. The effect of cholesterol on the intrinsic rate of lipid flip-flop as measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. Faraday Discuss. 2013;161:45-61. DOI: 10.1039/c2fd20083j

Dubova HY. Advances in research on food aroma recovery. Poltava: PUET; 2017. 187 р.

Walker RP, Bonghi C, Varotto S, Battistelli A, Burbidge CA, Castellarin SD, et al. Sucrose metabolism and transport in grapevines, with emphasis on berries and leaves, and insights gained from a cross-species comparison. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jul 21;22(15):7794. DOI: 10.3390/ijms22157794

Koroleva OA, Tomos DA, Farrar J, Pollock CJ. Changes in osmotic and turgor pressure in response to sugar accumulation in barley source leaves. Planta. 2002 Jun;215(2):210-19. DOI: 10.1007/s00425-002-0744-2

Ding H, Rahman S. Experimental and theoretical study of wettability alteration during low salinity water flooding-an state of the art review. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Aspects. 2017 May;520:622-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2017.02.006

Klaassen A, Liu F, Mugele F, Siretanu I. Correlation between electrostatic and hydration forces on silica and gibbsite surfaces: an atomic force microscopy study. Langmuir. 2022 Jan;38(3):914-26. DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c02077

Valpuesta V. Fruit and vegetable biotechnology. Woodhead Publishing; 2002. 352 p.

Jarén-Galán M, Minguez-Mosquera MI. β-carotene and capsanthin co-oxidation by lipoxygenase. Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the reaction. J Agriс Food Chem. 1997;45(12):4814-20. DOI: 10.1021/jf970415c

Wampler B, Barringer SA. Volatile generation in bell peppers during frozen storage and thawing using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). J Food Sci. 2012 Jun;77(6):C677-83. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02727.x

Xu Y, Barringer S. Effect of temperature on lipid-related volatile production in tomato puree. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 14;57(19):9108-13. DOI: 10.1021/jf902192r

Carmona-Cabello M, Zorpas AA, Dorado MP. Biorefinery concept for the industrial valorization of tomato processing by-products. In: Tomato Processing by-Products: Sustainable Applications. Elsevier; 2022. p. 371-420. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-822866-1.00006-5

Tenetka A. Improving of rose table wine materials with antioxidants using [PhD thesis]. Kyiv: National University of Food Technologies; 2015. 22 p.

Nagodawithana T, Reed G, editors. Enzymes in food processing. 3rd edition. Academic Press; 1993. DOI: 10.1016/C2009-0-03282-6

Caporaso N. The impact of molecular gastronomy within the food science community. In: Gastronomy and food science. Academic Press; 2021. p. 1-18. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-820057-5.00001-7

Yilmaz E, Baldwin EA, Shewfelt RL. Enzymatic modification of tomato homogenate and its effect on volatile flavor compounds. J Food Sci. 2002 Jul;67(6):2122-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb09512.x

Lavelle C, This H, Kelly A L, Burke R. Handbook of molecular gastronomy: scientific foundations, educational practices, and culinary applications. CRC Press; 2021. 867 p.



How to Cite

Dubova H, Bezusov A, Biloshytska O, Poyedinok N. Application of Aroma Precursors in Food Plant Raw Materials: Biotechnological Aspect. Innov Biosyst Bioeng [Internet]. 2022Dec.8 [cited 2024May28];6(3-4):94-109. Available from: