Possibilities of Plant Preparations Use for Collagen Structure and Metabolism Disturbances Correction: Modern State of Problem
Keywords:plant preparations, collagen structure, collagen metabolism, disturbances correction, recombinant collagens
The review summarizes information on possibilities of plant preparations use for collagen structure and metabolism disturbances correction. Biologically active compounds of plant origin can both stimulate and inhibit the biosynthesis of various types collagens, accelerate or slower down their catabolism, regulate the activity of enzymes involved in the collagen's metabolism. Most of the studied compounds realize their effects simultaneously by several mechanisms. Among them, the most common are the direct influence of the substance on the processes of collagen genes expression and indirect influence via TGF-beta1- pathway. In addition, a fairly common are effects on collagen synthesis by changing organism's pools of free amino acids (as the starting compounds for this protein synthesis) and by regulation of hydroxylases (performing collagen post-translational modifications and crosslinking). Besides TGF-beta1 others cytokines can also be involved in the processes of collagen metabolism regulation by compounds of plant origin. In particular, this is characteristic of triterpenes and phytoestrogens. Such a variety of methods for collagens metabolism regulation creates a wide range of possibilities for developing new preparations based on extracts or pure plant compounds able to correct connective tissue collagen structure and metabolic disorders with minimal adverse effects. Fundamentally different possibilities for the influence of plant organisms on collagens are opened with the use of genetically modified plants. Recombinant collagens allow to obtain proteins with new programmed features, making it possible to synthesize proteins with predetermined properties for medical use.
Zazzara MB, Palmer K, Vetrano DL, Carfì A, Onder G. Adverse drug reactions in older adults: a narrative review of the literature. Eur Geriatr Med. 2021;12(3):463-73. DOI: 10.1007/s41999-021-00481-9
Cacabelos R, Naidoo V, Corzo L, Cacabelos N, Carril JC. Genophenotypic factors and pharmacogenomics in adverse drug reactions. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(24):13302. DOI: 10.3390/ijms222413302
Elliott WJ, Bistrika EA. Perindopril arginine and amlodipine besylate for hypertension: a safety evaluation. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2018;17(2):207-16. DOI: 10.1080/14740338.2018.1397129
Hasnain A, Naqvi SAH, Ayesha SI, Khalid F, Ellahi M, Iqbal S, et al. Plants in vitro propagation with its applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries; current scenario and future approaches. Front Plant Sci. 2022;13:1009395. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2022.1009395
Bondarenko LB. Structure and metabolism of collagens in various pathologies. Ukr Biokhim Zh. 1998;70(3):12-23.
Kavitha O, Thampan RV. Factors influencing collagen biosynthesis. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104(4):1150-60. DOI: 10.1002/jcb.21728
Ren J, Yang M, Xu F, Chen J, Ma S. Acceleration of wound healing activity with syringic acid in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Life Sci. 2019;233:116728. DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116728
Golembiovska OI, Galkin AY, Besarab AB. Development and validation of a dissolution test for ursodeoxycholic acid and taurine from combined formulation. Sci Study Res Chem Chem Eng Biotechnol Food Industry. 2019;20(3):377-94.
Bahramsoltani R, Farzaei MH, Rahimi R. Medicinal plants and their natural components as future drugs for the treatment of burn wounds: an integrative review. Arch Dermatol Res. 2014;306(7):601-17. DOI: 10.1007/s00403-014-1474-6
Ghosh PK, Gaba A. Phyto-extracts in wound healing. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;16(5):760-820. DOI: 10.18433/j3831v
Her Y, Lee TK, Kim JD, Kim B, Sim H, Lee JC, et al. Topical application of Aronia melanocarpa extract rich in chlorogenic acid and rutin reduces UVB-induced skin damage via attenuating collagen disruption in mice. Molecules. 2020;25(19):4577. DOI: 10.3390/molecules25194577
Majewski GP, Singh S, Bojanowski K. Olive leaf‐derived PPAR agonist complex induces collagen IV synthesis in human skin models. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2021;43(6):662-76. DOI: 10.1111/ics.12742
Ananda N, Ariawan D, Juniantito V. Effects of the Hydnophytumformicarum plant extract on collagen density, angiogenesis, wound length, and re-epithelialization in wound healing: Experimental study on rats. Dent Med Probl. 2022;59(1):67-73. DOI: 10.17219/dmp/140208
Chutoprapat R, Malilas W, Rakkaew R, Udompong S, Boonpisuttinant K. Collagen biosynthesis stimulation and anti-melanogenesis of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) extracts. Pharm Biol. 2020;58(1):1023-31. DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2020.1822419
Waqas MK, Akhtar N, Mustafa R, Jamshaid M, Khan HM, Murtaza G. Dermatological and cosmeceutical benefits of Glycine max (soybean) and its active components. Acta Pol Pharm. 2015;72(1):3-11.
Gulati OP. Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency and related venous disorders. Phytother Res. 2014;28(3):348-62. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5019
Ahmadi A. Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients. Chin J Integr Med. 2012;18(8):635-40. DOI: 10.1007/s11655-012-1183-y
Chua LS, Lee SY, Abdullah N, Sarmidi MR. Review on Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah): bioactive phytochemicals and skin collagen synthesis promoting herb. Fitoterapia. 2012 Dec;83(8):1322-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2012.04.002
Deyama T, Nishibe S, Nakazawa Y. Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001 Dec;22(12):1057-70.
Lin XJ, Chen CY. Advances on study of treatment of lumbar disk herniation by Chinese medicinal herbs. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 Feb;32(3):186-91.
Rajalalitha P, Vali S. Molecular pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis – a collagen metabolic disorder. J Oral Pathol Med. 2005 Jul;34(6):321-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2005.00325.x
Han G, Xia J, Gao J, Inagaki Y, Tang W, Kokudo N. Anti-tumor effects and cellular mechanisms of resveratrol. Drug Discov Ther. 2015 Feb;9(1):1-12. DOI: 10.5582/ddt.2015.01007.
Guo Y, Li Y, Xue L, Severino RP, Gao S, Niu J, et al. Salvia miltiorrhiza: an ancient Chinese herbal medicine as a source for anti-osteoporotic drugs. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;155(3):1401-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.07.058
Saller R, Melzer J, Reichling J, Brignoli R, Meier R. An updated systematic review of the pharmacology of silymarin. Forsch Komplementmed. 2007 Apr;14(2):70-80. DOI: 10.1159/000100581
Wei XL, Fang RT, Yang YH, Bi XY, Ren GX, Luo AL, et al. Protective effects of extracts from Pomegranate peels and seeds on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Oct 27;15(1):389. DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0916-9
An BJ, Kwak JH, Park JM, Lee JY, Park TS, Lee JT, et al. Inhibition of enzyme activities and the antiwrinkle effect of polyphenol isolated from the persimmon leaf (Diospyros kaki folium) on human skin. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31(7 Pt 2):848-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-4725.2005.31730
James A, Gunasekaran N, Krishnan R, Arunachalam P, Mahalingam R. Anti-fibrotic activity of licorice extract in comparison with colchicine on areca nut-induced fibroblasts: An in vitro study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2022 Apr-Jun;26(2):173-8. DOI: 10.4103/jomfp.jomfp_110_21
Rutter K, Sell DR, Fraser N, Obrenovich M, Zito M, Starke-Reed P, et al. Green tea extract suppresses the age-related increase in collagen crosslinking and fluorescent products in C57BL/6 mice. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2003 Nov;73(6):453-60. DOI: 10.1024/0300-98184.108.40.2063
Pearson DA, Holt RR, Rein D, Paglieroni T, Schmitz HH, Keen CL. Flavanols and platelet reactivity. Clin Dev Immunol. 2005;12(1):1-9. DOI: 10.1080/10446670410001722140
Zhou SJ, Du GY. Effects of higenamine on the cardio-circulatory system. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003;28(10):910-3.
Ahmed T, Wang CK. black garlic and its bioactive compounds on human health diseases: a review. Molecules. 2021;26(16):5028. DOI: 10.3390/molecules26165028
Teng CM, Ko FN. Antiplatelet agents isolated from medicinal plants. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1998 Dec;102(3):211-25.
Kwon OY, Ryu S, Choi JK, Lee SH. Smilax glabra Roxb. inhibits collagen induced adhesion and migration of PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells through the inhibition of beta 1 integrin expression. Molecules. 2020;25(13):3006. DOI: 10.3390/molecules25133006
RyuS, Park KM, Lee SH. Gleditsia sinensis thorn attenuates the collagen-based migration of PC3 prostate cancer cells through the suppression of α2β1 integrin expression. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(3):328. DOI: 10.3390/ijms17030328
Gallie DR. Increasing vitamin C content in plant foods to improve their nutritional value-successes and challenges. Nutrients. 2013;5(9):3424-46. DOI: 10.3390/nu5093424
Holmes DF, Lu Y, Starborg T, Kadler KE. Chapter three - Collagen fibril assembly and function. In: Current topics in developmental biology. Vol. 130. Elsevier; 2018. p. 107-42. DOI: 10.1016/bs.ctdb.2018.02.004
Berg RA, Steinmann B, Rennard SI, Crystal RG. Ascorbate deficiency results in decreased collagen production: under-hydroxylation of proline leads to increased intracellular degradation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1983 Oct 15;226(2):681-6. DOI: 10.1016/0003-9861(83)90338-7
Bai R, Chang Y, Saleem A, Wu F, Tian L, Zhang S, et al. Ascorbic acid can promote the generation and expansion of neuroepithelial-like stem cells derived from hiPS/ES cells under chemically defined conditions through promoting collagen synthesis. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021;12(1):48. DOI: 10.1186/s13287-020-02115-6
Gohar O, Weiss T, Wineman E, Kessler E. Ascorbic acid promotes procollagen C-proteinase enhancer 1 expression, secretion, and cell membrane localization. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2020 Jun;303(6):1670-9. DOI: 10.1002/ar.24182
Geesin JC, Hendricks LJ, Gordon JS, Berg RA. Modulation ofcollagensynthesisby growth factors: the role of ascorbate-stimulated lipid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991;289(1):6-11. DOI: 10.1016/0003-9861(91)90434-k
Park HJ, Ock SM, Kim HJ, Park HJ, Lee YB, Choi JM, et al. Vitamin C attenuates ERK signalling to inhibit the regulation of collagen production by LL-37 in human dermal fibroblasts. Exp Dermatol. 2010 Aug;19(8):e258-64. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2010.01070.x
Otsuka E, Kato Y, Hirose S, Hagiwara H. Role of ascorbic acid in the osteoclast formation: induction of osteoclast differentiation factor with formation of the extracellular collagen matrix. Endocrinology. 2000 Aug;141(8):3006-11. DOI: 10.1210/endo.141.8.7597
De Tullio MC. Beyond the antioxidant: the double life of vitamin C. In: Stanger O, editor. Water soluble vitamins. Subcellular biochemistry. Vol 56. Dordrecht: Springer; 2012. p. 49-65. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2199-9_4
Chojkier M, Houglum K, Solis-Herruzo J, Brenner DA. Stimulation of collagen gene expression by ascorbic acid in cultured human fibroblasts. A role for lipid peroxidation? J Biol Chem. 1989 Oct 5;264(28):16957-62. DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9258(19)84800-7
Yin L, Morita A, Tsuji T. Alterations of extracellular matrix induced by tobacco smoke extract. Arch Dermatol Res. 2000 Apr;292(4):188-94. DOI: 10.1007/s004030050476
Tiku ML, Shah R, Allison GT. Evidence linking chondrocyte lipid peroxidation to cartilage matrix protein degradation. Possible role in cartilage aging and the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jun 30;275(26):20069-76. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M907604199
Wang QL, Yuan JL, Tao YY, Zhang Y, Liu P, Liu CH. Fuzheng Huayu recipe and vitamin E reverse renal interstitial fibrosis through counteracting TGF-beta1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Feb 17;127(3):631-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.12.011
Azzi A, Gysin R, Kempná P, Munteanu A, Villacorta L, Visarius T, Zingg JM. Regulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol. Biol Chem. 2004 Jul;385(7):585-91. DOI: 10.1515/BC.2004.072
Makpol S, Azura Jam F, Anum Mohd Yusof Y, Zurinah Wan Ngah W. Modulation of collagen synthesis and its gene expression in human skin fibroblasts by tocotrienol-rich fraction. Arch Med Sci. 2011 Oct;7(5):889-95. DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2011.25567
Makpol S, Zainuddin A, Chua KH, Yusof YA, Ngah WZ. Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012;67(2):135-43. DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2012(02)08
Siddiqui S, Ahsan H, Khan MR, Siddiqui WA. Protective effects of tocotrienols against lipid-induced nephropathy in experimental type-2 diabetic rats by modulation in TGF-β expression. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 Dec 1;273(2):314-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2013.09.004
Cho HS, Lee MH, Lee JW, No KO, Park SK, Lee HS, et al. Anti-wrinkling effects of the mixture of vitamin C, vitamin E, pycnogenol and evening primrose oil, and molecular mechanisms on hairless mouse skin caused by chronic ultraviolet B irradiation. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2007 Oct;23(5):155-62. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0781.2007.00298.x
Guzyk MM, Sergiichuk IuT, Dyakun KO, Yanitska LV, Kuchmerovska TM. Effect of nicotinamide on amino acids content in bone collagen depending on biological availability of vitamins in diabetic rats. Ukr Biochem J. 2014 Jul-Aug;86(4):138-49. DOI: 10.15407/ubj86.04.138
Kuchmerovska T, Shymanskyy I, Bondarenko L, Klimenko A. Effects of nicotinamide supplementation on liver and serum contents of amino acids in diabetic rats. Eur J Med Res. 2008;13(6):275-80.
Choi SJ, Lee SN, Kim K, Joo da H, Shin S, Lee J, et al. Biological effects of rutin on skin aging. Int J Mol Med. 2016 Jul;38(1):357-63. DOI: 10.3892/ijmm.2016.2604
Działo M, Mierziak J, Korzun U, Preisner M, Szopa J, Kulma A. The potential of plant phenolics in prevention and therapy of skin disorders. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Feb 18;17(2):160. DOI: 10.3390/ijms17020160
Chiang SS, Pan TM. Beneficial effects of phytoestrogens and their metabolites produced by intestinal microflora on bone health. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97(4):1489-500. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-012-4675-y
Sienkiewicz P, Surazyński A, Pałka J, Miltyk W. Nutritional concentration of genistein protects human dermal fibroblasts from oxidative stress-induced collagen biosynthesis inhibition through IGF-I receptor-mediated signaling. Acta Pol Pharm. 2008 Mar-Apr;65(2):203-11.
Belcaro G, Maquart FX, Scoccianti M, Dugall M, Hosoi M, Cesarone MR, et al. TECA (Titrated Extract of Centella Asiatica): new microcirculatory, biomolecular, and vascular application in preventive and clinical medicine. A status paper. Panminerva Med. 2011 Sep;53(3 Suppl 1):105-18.
Tang M, Bian W, Cheng L, Zhang L, Jin R, Wang W, et al. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits keloid fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis in vitro via the TGF β/Smad and ERK signaling pathways. Int J Mol Med. 2018 Mar;41(3):1487-99. DOI: 10.3892/ijmm.2018.3362
Zong L, Qu Y, Xu MY, Dong YW, Lu LG. 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid down-regulates expression of type I and III collagen via TGF-Β1/Smad signaling pathway in human and rat hepatic stellate cells. Int J Med Sci. 2012;9(5):370-9. DOI: 10.7150/ijms.4395
Hou SQ, Fang M, Chen SS, Cong XP, Zhang DD, Li XM. Biochemical regulatory mechanism of asiaticoside in preventing and treating stent restenosis. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2014 Apr;39(8):1479-84.
Krithika R, Jyothilakshmi V, Prashantha K, Verma RJ. Mechanism of protective effect of phyllanthin against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and experimental liver fibrosis in mice. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2015;25(9):708-17. DOI: 10.3109/15376516.2015.1077361
Li ZY, Deng XL, Huang WH, Li L, Li H, Jing X, et al. Lignans from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides inhibited Ang II-stimulated extracellular matrix biosynthesis in mesangial cells. Chin Med. 2014 Feb 14;9(1):8. DOI: 10.1186/1749-8546-9-8
Lu YC, Hsiao G, Lin KH, Hsieh MS, Jayakumar T, Wu TS, et al. Cinnamophilin isolated from Cinnamomum philippinense protects against collagen degradation in human chondrocytes. Phytother Res. 2013 Jun;27(6):892-9. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.4812
Kwon YY, Kim D, Kim J, Hwang JK. Effects of licarin E on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and type-1 procollagen in UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Phytother Res. 2011 Dec;25(12):1891-4. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3521
Maepa M, Razwinani M, Motaung S. Effects of resveratrol on collagen type II protein in the superficial and middle zone chondrocytes of porcine articular cartilage. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Feb 3;178:25-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.047
Yuwanati M, Ramadoss R, Kudo Y, Ramani P, Senthil Murugan M. Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis among areca nut chewers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral Dis. 2022 May 3. DOI: 10.1111/odi.14235
Lu M, Tao L, Mei W, Luo R, Fu X, Wang L, et al. Effect of curcumin on the expression of p-STAT3 and IκB in db/db mice. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2014 Jun;39(6):591-7. DOI: 10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2014.06.008
Wang J, Ma J, Gu JH, Wang FY, Shang XS, Tao HR, et al. Regulation of type II collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-13 and cell proliferation by interleukin-1β is mediated by curcumin via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in rat chondrocytes. Mol Med Rep. 2017 Aug;16(2):1837-45. DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2017.6771
Perumal S, Dubey K, Badhwar R, George KJ, Sharma RK, Bagler G, et al. Capsaicin inhibits collagen fibril formation and increases the stability of collagen fibers. Eur Biophys J. 2015 Feb;44(1-2):69-76. DOI: 10.1007/s00249-014-1002-9
Davison-Kotler E, Marshall WS, García-Gareta E. Sources of collagen for biomaterials in skin wound healing. Bioengineering (Basel). 2019 Jun 30;6(3):56. DOI: 10.3390/bioengineering6030056
Perret S, Merle C, Bernocco S, Berland P, Garrone R, Hulmes DJ, et al. Unhydroxylated triple helical collagen I produced in transgenic plants provides new clues on the role of hydroxyproline in collagen folding and fibril formation. J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 23;276(47):43693-8. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M105507200
Setina CM, Haase JP, Glatz CE. Process integration for recovery of recombinant collagen type I α1 from corn seed. Biotechnol Prog. 2016 Jan-Feb;32(1):98-107. DOI: 10.1002/btpr.2191
Xu X, Gan Q, Clough RC, Pappu KM, Howard JA, Baez JA, et al. Hydroxylation of recombinant human collagen type I alpha 1 in transgenic maize co-expressed with a recombinant human prolyl 4-hydroxylase. BMC Biotechnol. 2011 Jun 24;11(1):69. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-11-69
Stein H, Wilensky M, Tsafrir Y, Rosenthal M, Amir R, Avraham T, et al. Production of bioactive, post-translationally modified, heterotrimeric, human recombinant type-I collagen in transgenic tobacco. Biomacromolecules. 2009 Sep 14;10(9):2640-5. DOI: 10.1021/bm900571b
Yan J, Hu K, Xiao Y, Zhang F, Han L, Pan S, et al. Preparation of recombinant human-like collagen/fibroin scaffold and its promoting effect on vascular cells biocompatibility. J Bioact Compat Polym. 2018;33(4):416-25. DOI: 10.1177/0883911518769680
Li J, Zhang YP, Kirsner RS. Angiogenesis in wound repair: angiogenic growth factors and the extracellular matrix. Microsc Res Tech. 2003 Jan 1;60(1):107-14. DOI: 10.1002/jemt.10249
Shilo S, Roth S, Amzel T, Harel-Adar T, Tamir E, Grynspan F, et al. Cutaneous wound healing after treatment with plant-derived human recombinant collagen flowable gel. Tissue Eng Part A. 2013 Jul;19(13-14):1519-26. DOI: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2012.0345
Inamasu J, Guiot BH, Sachs DC. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: an update on its biology, epidemiology, and natural history. Neurosurgery. 2006 Jun;58(6):1027-39. DOI: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000215867.87770.73
Lee B, D'Alessio M, Vissing H, Ramirez F, Steinmann B, Superti-Furga A. Characterization of a large deletion associated with a polymorphic block of repeated dinucleotides in the type III procollagen gene (COL3A1) of a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Mar;48(3):511-7.
Wirtz MK, Rao VH, Glanville RW, Labhard ME, Pretorius PJ, de Vries WN, et al. A cysteine for glycine substitution at position 175 in an alpha 1 (I) chain of type I collagen produces a clinically heterogeneous form of osteogenesis imperfecta. Connect Tissue Res. 1993;29(1):1-11. DOI: 10.3109/03008209309061961
Volodina TT, Korotkevich NV, Romanyuk SІ, Galkin OY, Kolybo DV, Komisarenko SV. Implementation of dietary supplements with effect of dezintoxication and improvement of osteogenesis and metabolism. Sci Innov. 2017;13(6):39-50. DOI: 10.15407/scin13.06.041
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The ownership of copyright remains with the Authors.
Authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute” as the Publisher.
Authors are reminded that it is their responsibility to comply with copyright laws. It is essential to ensure that no part of the text or illustrations have appeared or are due to appear in other publications, without prior permission from the copyright holder.IBB articles are published under Creative Commons licence:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under CC BY 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.