Photosynthetic Pigments Content in Emmer Wheat Plants as Criteria of Productivity in Traditional and Organic Farming Technology

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20535/ibb.2022.6.1.255277

Keywords:

photosynthetic pigments, organic farming, pre-sowing seed treatment, crop rotation, UV-C irradiation, Triticum dicoccum wheat

Abstract

Background. Estimation of chlorophyll and carotenoid content is an informative way to obtain ideas about the plants photosynthetic process and is an indirect method for assessing the productivity of plant crops, including cereals. As the worldwide interest at now for traditional and natural foods is growing, in the work we used one of the oldest grain crops – emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum (Schrank.) Schuebl.) which was cultivated in traditional and organic farming system.

Objective. The study aim was to determine the role of chlorophyll and carotenoids in the emmer wheat productivity formation by traditional and organic farming technology under different pre-sowing seed treatment systems.

Methods. Field experiment was establishment during 2019–2021 on low-humus, hard-loam chernozems, the condition of which meets the “virgin land” criterion. The emmer wheat cultivation in organic technology was carried out in crop rotation: winter rye (green manure crop) – mustard (to improve the field phytosanitary condition and soil organic matter indicators) – emmer wheat. Two variants of pre-sowing seed treatment were studied: irradiation with ultraviolet light of the C range (100–280 nm) and seed treatment with 1r Seed Treatment humic preparation. The pre-sowing seed treatment in the traditional technology of the emmer wheat cultivation was carried out by the UV-C irradiation. In organic technology both UV-C irradiation and treatment with 1r Seed Treatment humic preparation of natural origin were used. Statistical data processing was performed by methods of descriptive statistics, regression and analysis of variance by the program Statistica 10.0. The experimental data significance was evaluated by using multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) to calculate the least significant difference (LSD05).

Results. It was found the use of UV-C seeds irradiation in organic and traditional cultivation technologies leads to increase in the chlorophyll a (Chl a) content by 9.2 % and chlorophyll b (Chl b) content by 14.5 % in plants grown by organic technology, however to decrease in carotenoid content (Ct) by 14.9 %. The increase in the photosynthetic pigments content by UV-C seeds irradiation lead to yield increase from 4.26 t/ha by the traditional technology to 5.17 t/ha by the organic technology, ie by 21.4 %. In organic technology based on the comparison of the photosynthetic apparatus main indicators of the emmer wheat and yield, the most effective method for seed treatment was determined. It was established that at result of 1r Seed Treatment humic preparation application in pre-sowing seed treatment, the Chl a concentration decreased by 2.4 %, the Chl b and Ct concentration increased by 5 and 25.5 %, respectively, compared with plants grown from UV-C irradiated seeds. When 1r Seed Treatment was used for pre-sowing treatment yield was 5.58 t/ha, while at UV-C seed treatment – 5.17 t/ha, ie, the yield increase was 8 %. An inverse correlation between the ratio of the photosynthetic pigments Chl a/Chl b content and the emmer wheat yield was determined.

Conclusions. According to the study results, it can be assumed that the introduction of organic farming technology with pre-sowing seed treatment by the 1r Seed Treatment humic preparation can increase the emmer wheat yield by 31% compared to the traditional technology. Thus, the photosynthetic pigments content and their ratio can be the effectiveness indicators of the implemented agricultural technologies.

References

Arzani A, Muhamad A. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2017 May;16(3):477-88. DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12262

Čurná V, Lacko-Bartošova M. Chemical composition and nutritional value of emmer wheat (Triticum diccoccon Schrank): A review. J Central Europ Agricult. 2017;18(1):117-34. DOI: 10.5513/JCEA01/18.1.1871

Lachman J, Miholova D, Pivec V, Jiri K, Janovska D. Content of phenolic antioxidants and selenium in grain of einkorn (Triticum monococcum), emmer (Triticum diccoccum) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties. Plant Soil Environ. 2011;57(5):235-43. DOI: 10.17221/13/2011-PSE

Suchowilska E, Wiwart M, Kandler W, Krska R. A comparison of macro- and microelement concentrations in the whole grain of four Triticum species. Plant Soil Environ. 2012;58(3):141-7. DOI: 10.17221/688/2011-PSE

Peng J, Sun D, Nevo E. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides occupies a pivotal position in wheat domestication process. Aust J Crop Sci. 2011;5(9):1127-43.

Chayka TO. Preconditions for development of the market of organic products in Ukraine. Market Manag Innov. 2011;4(1):233-40.

Khalep Y, Moskalenko A. Ecological and economic aspects of the efficiency of Polissia organic plant models. Agric Resour Econ. 2020;6(4):5-19. DOI: 10.51599/ARE.2020.06.04.01

Horobets M, Chaika T, Korotkova I, Pysarenko P, Mishchenko O, Shevnikov M, et al. In-fluence of growth stimulants on photosynthetic activity of spring barley (Hordeum vul-gare L.) crops. Int J Botany Stud. 2021;6(2):340-5.

Crowder DW, Reganold JP. Financial competitiveness of organic agriculture on a global scale. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2015;112(24):7611-6. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1423674112

Chaika Т, Korotkova I, Barabolia О, Shokalo N, Chetveryk О, Bilenko О, et al. Technolo-gical peculiarities of growing mustard and two-grained spelt (Triticum Dicoccum (Schrank) Schuebl) by organic farming methods. Int J Botany Stud. 2021;6(6):205-10.

Semenov A, Korotkova I, Sakhno T, Marenych M, Нanhur V, Liashenko V, et al. Effect of UV-C radiation on basic indices of growth process of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds in pre-sowing treatment. Acta Agricult Slovenica. 2020;116(1):49-58. DOI: 10.14720/AAS.2020.116.1.1563

Korotkova I, Marenych M, Hanhur V, Laslo O, Chetveryk O, Liashenko V. Weed control and winter wheat crop yield with the application of herbicides, nitrogen fertilizers, and their mixtures with humic growth regulators. Acta Agrobot. 2021;74. DOI: 10.5586/AA.748

Wellburn AR. The spectral determination of chlorophylls a, and b, as well as total ca-rotenoids, using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. J Plant Physiol. 1994;144(3):307-13. DOI: 10.1016/S0176-1617(11)81192-2

Korotkova IV, Gorobets MV, Chaika TO. Influence of growth stimulants on productivity of spring barley varieties. Bulletin of Poltava State Agrarian Academy. 2021;2:20-30. DOI: 10.31210/visnyk2021.02.02

Korotkova IV, Chaika TO. Influence of mineral fertilizers, humic preparations and their mixtures on the intensity of growth processes and the content of photosynthetic pig-ments in winter wheat plants. In: Chaika TO, editor. Eco-oriented approaches to the restoration of man-made contaminated areas and the creation of sustainable ecosystems. Poltava: Astraia, 2022. p. 279-322.

Marenych MM, Markina IA, Hanhur VV, Len OI. Effectiveness of "Soilbiotics" application on winter wheat. Bulletin of Poltava State Agrarian Academy. 2018;3:22-6. DOI: 10.31210/visnyk2018.03.03

Cai R-G, Zhang M, Yin YP, Wang P, Zhang TB, Gu F, et al. Photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidative metabolism of flag leaves in responses to nitrogen application during grain filling of field-grown wheat. Agric Sci China. 2008;7(2):157-67. DOI: 10.1016/s1671-2927(08)60035-8

Melis A. Solar energy convertion efficiencies in photosynthesis: Minimizing the chloro-phyll antennae to maximize efficience. Plant Sci. 2009;177(4):272-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2009.06.005

Murchie EH, Pinto M, Horton P. Agriculture and the new challenges for photosynthesis research. New Phytol. 2009;181(3):532-52. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02705.x

Li N, Jia J, Xia C, Liu X, Kong X. Characterization and mapping of novel chlorophyll deficient mutant genes in durum wheat. Breed Sci. 2013; 63(2):169-75. DOI: 10.1270/jsbbs.63.169

Luo PG, Ren ZL. Wheat leaf chlorosis controlled by a single recessive gene. J Plant Physiol and Mol Biol. 2006;32:330-8.

Sui N, Li M, Meng QW, Tian JC, Zhao SJ. Photosynthetic characteristics of a super high yield cultivar of winter wheat during late grown period. Agricult Sci in China. 2010;9(3):346-54. DOI: 10.1016/s1671-2927(09)60103-6

Campos MD, Nogales A, Cardoso HG, Campos C, Grzebelus D, Velada I, et al. Carrot plas-tid terminal oxidase gene (DcPTOX) responds early to chilling and harbors intronic pre-mirnas related to plant disease defense. Plant Gene. 2016;7:21-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.plgene.2016.07.002

Li Y, He N, Hou J, Xu L, Liu C, Zhang J, et al. Factors influencing leaf chlorophyll content in natural forests at the biome scale. Front Ecol Evol. 2018;6:64. DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2018.00064

Croft H, Chen JM, Luo X, Bartlett P, Chen B, Staebler RM. Leaf chlorophyll content as a proxy for leaf photosynthetic capacity. Glob Change Biol. 2017;23(9):3513-24. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13599

Lawlor DW. Musings about the effects of envіronment on photosynthesis. Ann Bot. 2009;103(4):543-9. DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcn256

Yanyan Y, Peng H, Fengying D, Li N, Tingbo D, Keru W, et al. Improving photosynthesis to increase grain yield potential: an ana¬lysis of maize hybrids released in diferent years in China. Photosynth Res. 2021;150(1-3):295-311. DOI: 10.1007/s11120-021-00847-x

Ivanov LA, Ivanova LA, Ronzhina DA, Yudina PK. Changes in the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in the leaves of steppe plants along a latitudinal gradient in South Ural. Russ J Plant Physiol. 2013;60(6):812-20. DOI: 10.1134/s1021443713050075

Published

2022-06-05

How to Cite

1.
Korotkova I, Chaika T, Romashko T, Rybalchenko A. Photosynthetic Pigments Content in Emmer Wheat Plants as Criteria of Productivity in Traditional and Organic Farming Technology. Innov Biosyst Bioeng [Internet]. 2022Jun.5 [cited 2022Jun.28];6(1):31-9. Available from: http://ibb.kpi.ua/article/view/255277

Issue

Section

Articles