The Role of Cord Blood in the Regulation of the Cellular and Humoral Link of Immunity in Experimental Atopic Dermatitis
Keywords:atopic dermatitis, cord blood leucoconcentrate, immune system, cryopreservation, lyophilization
Background. Atopic dermatitis (AD) as one of the most common diseases of autoimmune genesis in the structure of dermatological practice, is characterized by itching, dryness, thickening of the skin, characteristic rashes. The drugs of choice in the treatment of AD are steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, the development of unwanted side effects is a serious problem attributed to using hormone therapy. The search for effective methods of treating AD is an urgent task of medicine and in particular dermatology. At the same time, there is an obvious need for the participation in the solution of this problem also of specialists-immunologists working in the field of application of cell therapy drugs, acting on various pathogenetic links of the disease. The development of new or optimization of existing methods of treating AD is the urgent task facing them.
Objective. Evaluation of the immunocorrective effect of lyophilized (lHCBL) and cryopreserved human cord blood leucoconcetrate (cHCBL) on a AD model.
Methods. The experiments were carried out on 6-month-old Wistar rats. Upon induction of AD, the inflammation focus was formed on the rat's back (9–10 cm2) by daily rubbing in a 5% alcohol-acetone solution of dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for 21 days. cHCBL and lHCBL were injected intraperitoneally, 0.5 ml at a dose of 5´106 cells in one day after the final DNCB treatment. The adhesive and phagocytic activity of the cells of the peritoneal cavity, the level of circulating immune complexes, the population and subpopulation of lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD4+CD25+), the immunoregulatory index of lymphocytes, the concentration of immunoglobulins in the blood serum were determined.
Results. For AD induced by DNCB, systemic changes in the immune status are characteristic, which is expressed by changes in the parameters of cellular and humoral immunity. The most fundamental changes in cell subpopulations in spleen of rats with AD were revealed: a decrease in the number of total T-lymphocytes and their two main subpopulations (CD4+ and CD8+ cells). Against this background, changes were noted in the monocytic-phagocytic and humoral systems of immunity. The paper shows the effectiveness of the use of cHCBL and lHCBL in the correction of pathological manifestations of experimental AD. On the background of treatment, the features of the immunocorrective effect of each of the drugs were noted. Thus, when assessing intergroup values, a more pronounced increase in T-reg was revealed in rats of the 5th group – 3.9 [3.8; 4.0] versus 3.2 [3.0; 3.3] in the 4th group (P < 0.01); IgA level – 1.6 [1.5; 1.7] versus 1.3 [1.2; 1.4] (P < 0.01).
Conclusions. Thus, lHCBL exhibits immunocorrective activity in the treatment of experimental AD, surpassing in some parameters the activity of сHCBL, which is promising for its use in clinical practice.
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