The Effect of Magnetite Nanoparticles on the Growth and Development of Nicotiana Tabacum Plants in Vivo and in Vitro Culture
Keywords:nanofertilizers, tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, magnetite nanoparticles, biomineralization, biogenic magnetic nanoparticles, biomass accumulation
Background. Nanomaterials are easily modified and have unique characteristics associated with a large reactive surface Due to these properties, nanomaterials are used in various branches of sciences and technology, such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, chemical technology, etc. Recently, the effect of magnetite nanoparticles on the morphological properties of plants has been actively studied for their further use as nanoadditives to increase yields and improve the properties of agricultural plants. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a model object of plant biotechnology, it is used to study the effect of various factors on dicotyledonous plants, so it was chosen to study the effect of magnetite on the growth, development, and mass accumulation by plants.
Objective. We are aimed to study the effect of magnetite nanoparticles on the growth and development of Nicotiana tabacum in vivo and in vitro.
Methods. The ability of tobacco to produce biogenic magnetic nanoparticles by searching for mammal proteins homologues in the
Nicotiana tabacum proteome using the Blast NCBI program was studied using comparative genomics methods. The plants were divided into groups (control, magnetite nanoparticle concentration 0.1 mg/cm3, magnetite nanoparticle concentration 1 mg/cm3) for both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Analysis of plant parameters was performed every 14 days to study the dynamics of the effects of magnetite nanoparticles.
Results. It was determined that magnetite nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.1 mg/cm3 in culture in vitro and in vivo significantly affect the growth of the root system and sprouts of Nicotiana tabacum. On the 56th day of plant cultivation in vitro on a salivary medium supplemented with magnetite nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.1 mg/cm3, an increase in the shoot length by 13.3%, root length by 31.7%, and the mass of absolutely dry substances by 18.75% was observed compared to the control. Treatment of magnetite nanoparticles with a suspension at a concentration of 0.1 mg/cm3 led to more pronounced results when growing tobacco in vivo. So, on the
56th day, the root length increased by 23.3%, the length of the shoot – by 19.2%, and the mass of absolutely dry substances – by
2 times, the first leaves appeared 2 days earlier compared to the control. The addition of magnetite nanoparticles to the substrate on which the plants were grown in vivo at a concentration of 1 mg/cm3 inhibits the growth of tobacco.
Conclusions. Studies have shown the expediency of using magnetic nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.1 mg/cm3 as nanofertilizers in tobacco cultivation.
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