Biological Risks of Using Non-Thermal Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Fields
Electromagnetic pollution of the environment has become a significant environmental factor. The intensity of technogenic electromagnetic fields far exceeds the background indicators to which organisms have adapted in the course of evolution, in particular by their biorhythms. Much data on the biological effects of low-intensity (non-thermal) extremely high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EHF-EMF) at different levels of the organization has been accumulated. There are many possible explanations for these impacts, but the mechanism of action is not established.
The purpose of this work is to analyze the negative effects of the use of non-thermal coherent electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies. In particular, the use of microwave therapy is considered.
A review of reports on the harmful effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic and magnetic fields among the population and professional groups has been made; the presence of the problem of hypersensitivity to such fields was shown. Information on the development of the direction of study of the resonant biological influence of EHF-EMF by Ukrainian specialists was provided.
Particular attention is paid to the use of non-thermal microwaves for physiotherapy procedures, pain relief, correction of psycho-emotional disorders, ulcer healing, in particular stomach and duodenum, etc. It is noted that the so-called "therapeutic" frequencies of EHF-EMF, even if controlled, can cause negative effects, although they are not perceived as damaging. Changes in objective vital signs in the case of targeted exposure by low-intensity millimeter-wave radiation, namely, hemodynamics, temperature increase in the exposure zone, muscle activity, and the speed of the passage of a nerve impulse, an encephalogram were established. Precautionary recommendations based on the scientific and practical experience of using microwave acupuncture methods in the conditions of medical institutions are formulated.
The synergistic effect of various influences, in particular electromagnetic fields, may not be a direct trigger of the disease, but a factor of not compensated stress. Therefore, clinical studies conducted many years ago cannot simply be dismissed on the grounds that the millimeter radiation penetrates only the outer layer of the skin. Skin cells can also secrete mediators that cause changes in ionic calcium channels and the level of calcium in the cells. The interest in these works is justified by the fact that currently the sources of monochromatic millimeter radiation will be spread with new communication systems. The risks of their biological action should be taken into account when emitters are installed.
Cleveland RF, Ulcek JL. Questions and answers about biological effects and potential hazards of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields [Internet]. Transition.fcc.gov. 2019 [cited 2019 May 25]. Available from: https://transition.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Engineering_Technology/Documents/bulletins/oet56/oet5
Bingi V, Savin A. Effects of weak magnetic fields on biological systems: physical aspects. Physics-Uspekhi. 2003 Mar 31;46(3):259-91. DOI: 10.1070/PU2003v046n03ABEH001283
Halberg F, Cornelissen-Guillaume GG, Otsuka K, Watanabe Y, Katinas GS, Burioka N, et al. Cross-spectrally coherent ~10.5- and 21-year biological and physical cycles, magnetic storms and myocardial infarctions. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 2000 Jan 1;21(3):233-58.
Martyinyuk VS, Vladimirskiy BM, Temuryants NA. Biological rhythms and electromagnetic fields of the environment. Geofizicheskie Protsessyi i Biosfera. 2006;5(1):5-23.
Lewczuk B, Redlarski G, Żak A, Ziółkowska N, Przybylska-Gornowicz B, Krawczuk M. Influence of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on the circadian system: current stage of knowledge. BioMed Res Int. 2014;2014:1-13. DOI: 10.1155/2014/169459
Zhang X, Yarema K, Xu A. Biological Effects of Static Magnetic Fields. Singapore: Springer; 2017. 220 p. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-3579-1
Berdonosov SS. Microwave chemistry. Sorovskiy Obrazovatelnyiy Zhurnal. 2001;7(1):32-8.
Gandhi O, Riazi A. Absorption of millimeter waves by human beings and its biological implications. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech. 1986 Mar;34(2):228-35. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.1986.1133316
Fröhlich H. Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems. Int J Quantum Chem. 1968 Sep;2(5):641-9. DOI: 10.1002/qua.560020505
Fröhlich H. Bose condensation of strongly excited longitudinal electric modes. Phys Lett A. 1968 Mar 25;26(9):402-3. DOI: 10.1016/0375-9601(68)90242-9
Mazurek PA, Naumchuk OM, Kot K, Wdowiak A, Zybała M. Exposure of high frequency electromagnetic fields in the living environment. EJMT. 2018 Oct 30;4(21):33-9.
Bandara P, Weller S. Cardiovascular disease: Time to identify emerging environmental risk factors. Eur J Prevent Cardiol. 2017 Oct; 24(17):1819-23. DOI: 10.1177/2047487317734898
Habash RWY, Brodsky LM, Leiss W, Krewski D, Repacholi M. Health risks of electromagnetic fields. Part II: Evaluation and assessment of radio frequency radiation. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2003;31(3):1-58. DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.v31.i3.20
Hardell L, Sage C. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards. Biomed Pharmacother. 2008 Feb;62(2):104-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2007.12.004
Sage C, Carpenter DO. Public health implications of wireless technologies. Pathophysiology. 2009;16(2-3):233-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.01.011
Hardell L, Carlberg C. Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumors. Int J Oncol. 2009 Jul;35(1):5-17. DOI: 10.3892/ijo_00000307
Waldmann-Selsam C, Balmori-de la Puente A, Breunig H, Balmori A. Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations. Sci Total Environ. 2016 Dec;572:554-69. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.045
Halgamuge MN. Review: Weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phone radiation on plants. Electromagn Biol Med, 2017 Sep 20;36(2):213-35. DOI:10.1080/15368378.2016.1220389
Warnke U. Bees, birds and mankind. Destroying nature by 'Electrosmog': effects of wireless communication technologies [Internet]. Media.withtank.com. 2019 [cited 2019 May 25]. Available from: http://media.withtank.com/4a1515f54f.pdf
Balmori A. Electromagnetic pollution from phone masts. Effects on wildlife. Pathophysiology. 2009 Aug;16(2-3):191-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.01.007
Cammaerts MC, Johansson O. Ants can be used as bio-indicators to reveal biological effects of electromagnetic waves from some wireless apparatus. Electromagn Biol Med. 2013 Aug;33(4):282-8. DOI: 10.3109/15368378.2013.817336
Kumar NR, Sangwan S, Badotra P. Exposure to cell phone radiations produces biochemical changes in worker honey bees. Toxicol Int. 2011 Jan-Jun;18(1):62-6. DOI: 10.4103/0971-6580.75869
Balmori A. Efectos de las radiaciones electromagnéticas de la telefonía móvil sobre los insectos. Ecosistemas. 2006;15(1):87-95.
Margaritis LH, Manta AK, Kokkaliaris KD, Schiza D, Alimisis K, Barkas G, et al. Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker responding to EMF sources. Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Aug;33(3):165-89. DOI: 10.3109/15368378.2013.800102
Broomhall M. Report detailing the exodus of species from the Mt. Nardi area of the Nightcap National Park World Heritage Area during a 15-year period (2000-2015) [Internet]. Emraware.com. 2019 [cited 2019 May 25]. Available from: http://emraware.com/Documents/Mt%20Nardi%20Wildlife%20Report%20to%20UNESCO.pdf
Balmori A. Possible effects of electromagnetic fields from phone masts on a population of white stork (Ciconia ciconia). Electromagn Biol Med. 2005 Jan;24(2):109-19. DOI: 10.1080/15368370500205472
Kordas D. Birds and trees of Northern Greece: Changes since the advent of 4G wireless [Internet]. Einarflydal.files.wordpress.com. 2019 [cited 2019 May 25]. Available from: https://einarflydal.files.wordpress.com/2017/08/kordas-birds-and-trees-of-northern-greece-2017-final.pdf
Balmori A. Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles: The city turned into a laboratory. Electromagn Biol Med. 2010 Jan;29(1-12):31-5. DOI: 10.3109/15368371003685363
Balmori A. The incidence of electromagnetic pollution on wild mammals: A new "poison" with a slow effect on nature? Environmentalist. 2010 Mar;30(1):90-7. DOI: 10.1007/s10669-009-9248-y
Magras IN, Xenos TD. RF radiation‐induced changes in the prenatal development of mice. Bioelectromagnetics. 1997;18(6):455-61. DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1521-186x(1997)18:63.0.co;2-1
Otitoloju AA, Osunkalu VO, Oduware R, Obe IA, Adewale AO. Haematological effects of radiofrequency radiation from GSM base stations on four successive generations (F1–F4) of albino mice, Mus Musculus. J Environ Occup Sci. 2012;1(1):17-22. DOI: 10.5455/jeos.20120602121540
Ahlbom A, Green A, Kheifets L, Savitz D, Swerdlow A. Epidemiology of health effects of radiofrequency exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Dec;112(17):1741-54. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.7306
Saunders R, Croft RJ, van Rongen E. Biological effects and health consequences of ELF and RF fields. Comprehens Biomed Phys. 2014 Aug;7:323-53. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53632-7.00816-9
Tomashevskaya LA, Kravchun TE, Lemeshko LP, Didyk NV, Bezverha AP. For the question of biological effects electromagnetic pollution. Hihiyena Naselenyh Mists. 2013;62:193-9.
Zhi WJ, Wang LF, Hu XJ. Recent advances in the effects of microwave radiation on brains. Military Med Res. 2017 Sep;4(1):29. DOI: 10.1186/s40779-017-0139-0
Grigorev YG, Grigorev KA. The electromagnetic fields of the base stations of the mobile radio communication and ecology. The estimation of danger of the base station EMF for population and for bioecosystems. Radiation Biol Radioecol. 2005;45(6):726-31.
Baste V, Moen BE, Oftedal G, Strand LA, Bjørge L, Mild KH. Pregnancy outcomes after paternal radiofrequency field exposure aboard fast patrol boats. J Occupat Environ Medicine. 2012 Apr;54(4):431-8. DOI: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3182445003
Hillert L, Berglind N, Arnetz BB, Bellander T. Prevalence of self-reported hypersensitivity to electric or magnetic fields in a population-based questionnaire survey. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2002 Feb;28(1):33-41. DOI: 10.5271/sjweh.644
Rubin GJ, Hillert L, Nieto‐Hernandez R, van Rongen E, Oftedal G. Do people with idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields display physiological effects when exposed to electromagnetic fields? A systematic review of provocation studies. Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Jul;32(8):593-609. DOI: 10.1002/bem.20690
Bogers RP, Van Gils A, Clahsen SCS, Vercruijsse W, Van Kamp I, Baliatsas C, et al. Individual variation in temporal relationships between exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and non-specific physical symptoms: A new approach in studying 'electrosensitivity'. Environment Int. 2018 Dec;121(1):297-307. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.064
Moskvin SV, Sokolovskaya LV, Subbotina TI, Hadartsev AA, Yashin AA, Yashin MA. Pathogenic effects of non-ionizing radiation on the human body. Moscow, Tver, Tula: Triada, 2007. 183 p.
Betskiy OV, Yaremenko YG. Skin and electromagnetic waves. Millimetrovyie Volnyi v Biologii i Meditsine. 1998;1(11):3-15.
Gurvich EB, Novohatskaya EA, Rubtsova NB. The mortality rate of the population living near a 500 kV power transmission facility. Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology. 1996;9:23-7.
Volkow ND, Tomasi D, Wang G-J, Vaska P, Fowler JS, Telang F, et al. Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism. JAMA. 2011 Feb;305(8):808-13. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2011.186
Medeiros LN, Sanchez TG. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation. Brazilian J Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Feb;82(1):97-104. DOI: 10.1016/j.bjorl.2015.04.013
Eghlidospour M, Ghanbari A, Mortazavi SMJ, Azari H. Effects of radiofrequency exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells. Anatomy Cell Biol. 2017 Jun;50(2):115-23. DOI: 10.5115/acb.2017.50.2.115
Bandara P, Weller S. Cardiovascular disease: Time to identify emerging environmental risk factors. Europ J Prevent Cardiol. 2017 Nov;24(17):1819-23. DOI: 10.1177/2047487317734898
Deshmukh P, Nasare N, Megha K, Banerjee BD, Ahmed RS, Singh D, et al. Cognitive impairment and neurogenotoxic effects in rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation. Int J Toxicol. 2015 Mar;34(3):284-90. DOI: 10.1177/1091581815574348
Belokrinitskiy VS. Changes in brain cells during prolonged exposure to microwave radiation of low intensities (50, 25, 10, 5 μW/cm2) and their significance for the body. Hihiyena Naselenyh Mists. 2006;48:224-31.
Zothansiama, Zosangzuali M, Lalramdinpuii M, Jagetia GC. Impact of radiofrequency radiation on DNA damage and antioxidants in peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. Electromag Biol Med. 2017 Aug;36(3):295-305. DOI: 10.1080/15368378.2017.1350584
Narayanan SN, Kumar RS, Potu BK, Nayak S, Mailankot M. Spatial memory performance of Wistar rats exposed to mobile phone. Clinics. 2009;64(3):231-34. DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322009000300014
Houston BJ, Nixon B, King BV, de Iuliis GN, Aitken RJ. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function. Reproduction. 2016 Dec;152(6):263-6. DOI: DOI:10.1530/REP-16-0126
Han J, Cao Z, Liu X, Zhang W, Zhang S. Effect of early pregnancy electromagnetic field exposure on embryo growth ceasing. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2010 May;39(3):349-52.
Salford LG, Brun AE, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Persson BRR. Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jun;111(7):881-3. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.6039
Bilokrynytsky V. Microwave pathology of the brain as a result of SHF field influence. Visn Nac Akad Nauk Ukr. 2007(5):23-9.
Milham S. Evidence that dirty electricity is causing the worldwide epidemics of obesity and diabetes. Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Jun;33(1):75-8. DOI: 10.3109/15368378.2013.783853
Herbert M, Sage C. Findings in autism (ASD) consistent with electromagnetic fields (EMF) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR). Bioiniative 2012. p. 1-106.
Kane RC. A possible association between fetal/neonatal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation and the increased incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Medical Hypotheses. 2004 Feb;62(2):195-7. DOI: 10.1016/S0306-9877(03)00309-8
Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2010 Dec;66(6):524-9. DOI: 10.1136/jech.2010.115402
Li D-K, Chen H, Odouli R. Maternal exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy in relation to the risk of asthma in offspring. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Aug 1;165(10):945-950. DOI:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.135
IARC classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans. IARC Press Release. 2011 May;208:1-6.
Golant MB, Vilenskaya RL, Zyulina EA, Kaplun ZF, Negirev AA, Parilov VA, et al. A series of wide-range low-power generators of millimeter and submillimeter wavelength ranges. Priboryi i Tehnika Eksperimenta. 1965;4:136-9.
Zalyubovskaya NP. Reactions of living organisms to exposure to millimeter-band electromagnetic waves. Sov Phys Usp. 1973;110(7):462-4. DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.0110.197307r.0462
Kiselev RI, Zalyubovskaya NP. Effects of millimeter-band electromagnetic waves in the cell and certain structural elements of the cell. Sov Phys Usp. 1974 Apr;16(4):576-7. DOI: 10.1070/PU1974v016n04ABEH005323
Zalyubovskaya NP. Biological effect of millimeter radiowaves. Vrachebnoye Delo. 1977;3:116-9.
Zalyubovskaya NP, Kiselev RI. Principles and criteria for assessing the effects of millimeter-wave electromagnetic fields on biological objects. Vesti HGU. 1975;130:138-41
Zalyubovskaya NP, Kiselev RI. Biological oxidation in the cell under the action of millimeter-wave radio waves. Cytol Genetics. 1978;12(3):232-6.
Smolyanskaya AZ, Vilenskaya RL. The effect of millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation on the functional activity of certain genetic elements of bacterial cells. Sov Phys Usp. 1973;110(7):458-60. DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.0110.197307o.0458
Grundler W, Keilmann F, Fröhlich H. Resonant growth rate response of yeast cells irradiated by weak microwaves. Phys Lett A. 1977 Sep;62:463-6. DOI: 10.1016/0375-9601(77)90696-X
Andreev EA, Belyiy MU, Karachentseva AI, Kislaya LV, Marinchenko LV, Yakunov AV. Resonant response of yeast cells to the low-intensity electromagnetic field of the millimeter range. Izvestiya Vyisshih Uchebnyih Zavedeniy Pischevaya Tehnologiya. 1990;2-3:30-1.
Taheri M, Mortazavi SM, Moradi M, Mansouri S, Hatam GR, Nouri F. Evaluation of the effect of radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi router and mobile phone simulator on the antibacterial susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. Dose-Response. 2017 Jan;15(1):1559325816688527. DOI: 10.1177/1559325816688527
Cherkassov IS, Nedzvetsky VA, Gilenko VA. Biomedical effects of millimeter-wave radio waves. Oftalmologicheskiy Zhurnal. 1978;3:187-90.
Andreev EA, Belyiy MU, Sitko SP. Manifestation of characteristic frequencies of the human body. Dokladyi AN USSR Ser B. 1984;10:60-3.
Andreev EA, Belyiy MU, Sitko SP. The reaction of the human body to electromagnetic radiation millimeter range. Vestnik AN SSSR. 1985;1:24-32.
Michaelson SM. Microwave and radiofrequency radiation. ICP/CEP 808. Copenhagen: WHO – Regional Office for Europe; 1976. p. 1-98.
Michaelson SM. Biological Effects and Health Hazards of RF and MW Energy: Fundamentals and Overall Phenomenology. In: Grandolfo M, Michaelson SM, Rindi A, editprs. Biological effects and dosimetry of nonionizing radiation. NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series (Series A: Life Sciences), vol 49. Boston: Springer; 1983. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4684-4253-3_15
Keilmann F. Experimental RF and MW resonant nonthermal effects. In: Grandolfo M, Michaelson SM, Rindi A, editors. Biological effects and dosimetry of nonionizing radiation. NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series (Series A: Life Sciences), vol 49. Boston: Springer; 1983. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4684-4253-3_12
Keilmann F, Grundler W. Sharp resonances in yeast growth prove nonthermal sensitivity to microwaves. Phys Rev Lett. 1983 Sep;51(13):1214-6. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.51.1214
Khabarova O, Dimitrova S. On the nature of people's reaction to space weather and meteorological weather changes. Sun Geosphere. 2009 Dec;4(2):60-71.
Khabarova OV. Bioeffective frequencies and their coupling with own frequencies of alive organisms. Biomediczinskie tekhnologii i radioelektronika. 2002;5:56-66.
Titushkin IA, Rao VS, Pickard WF, Moros EG, Shafirstein G, Cho MR. Altered calcium dynamics mediates P19-derived neuron-like cell responses to millimeter wave radiation. Radiat Res. 2009 Dec;172:725-36. DOI: 10.1667/RR1760.1
Sun S, Titushkin I, Varner J, Cho M. Millimeter wave-induced modulation of calcium dynamics in an engineered skin co-culture model: role of secreted ATP on calcium spiking. J Radiat Res. 2012 Mar;53(2):159-67. DOI: 10.1269/jrr.11037
Yang S, Lin H, Liu T, Lu J, Hung W, Huang Y, et al. Efficient structure resonance energy transfer from microwaves to confined acoustic vibrations in viruses. Sci Rep. 2005 Dec;5(1):1-10. DOI: 10.1038/srep18030
Grundler W, Keilmann F, Putterlik V, Santo L, Strube D, Zimmermann I. Nonthermal Resonant Effects of 42 GHz Microwaves on the Growth of Yeast Cultures. In: Fröhlich H, Kremer F, editors. Coherent Excitations in Biological Systems. Proceedings in Life Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 1983. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-69186-7_4
Binhi VN, Savin AV. Molecular gyroscopes and biological effects of weak ELF magnetic fields. Phys Rev E. 2002 May;65(5):1. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.051912
Binhi VN, Prato FS. Rotations of macromolecules affect nonspecific biological responses to magnetic fields. Sci Rep. 2018 Sep;8(1):13495. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-31847-y
Siddiqi N, Al Nazwani N. Effects of electromagnetic field on the development of chick embryo: An in vivo study. In: Electromagnetic fields and waves. IntechOpen; 2019. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.84704
Adang D, Remacle C, Vander Vorst A. Results of a long-term low-level microwave exposure of rats. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Techn. 2009 Sep;57(10):2488-97. DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2009.2029667
Mortazavi SM, Mahbudi A, Atefi M, Bagheri S, Bahaedini N, Besharati A. An old issue and a new look: electromagnetic hypersensitivity caused by radiations emitted by GSM mobile phones. Technol Health Care. 2011 Jan;19(6):435-43. DOI: 10.3233/THC-2011-0641
Uysal I, Hohberger C, Rasmussen RS, Ulrich DA, Emond JP, Gutierrez A. Effects of radio frequency identification–related radiation on in vitro biologics. PDA J Pharm Sci Technol. 2012 Jul;66(4):333-45. DOI: 10.5731/pdajpst.2012.00875
Warille AA, Altun G, Elamin AA, Kaplan AA, Mohamed H, Yurt KK, et al. Skeptical approaches concerning the effect of exposure to electromagnetic fields on brain hormones and enzyme activities. J Microscopy Ultrastruct. 2017 Dec;5(4):177-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmau.2017.09.002
Romanenko S, Begley R, Harvey AR, Hool L, Wallace VP. The interaction between electromagnetic fields at megahertz, gigahertz and terahertz frequencies with cells, tissues and organisms: risks and potential. J Royal Soc Interf. 2017 Dec;14(137):20170585. DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2017.0585
Devyatkov ND, Golant MB, Rebrova TB. On the possibility of using coherent electromagnetic information signals of living organisms for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Elektronnaya Tehnika Ser Elektronika SVCh. 1983;4(352):49-51.
Klyichnyiyazova MM, Kutsenok VA, Pyasetskiy VI. EMF peptic ulcer treatment. In: Proccedings of the 1st All-Union Coordination Meeting on Sharing Experience in Using Low-Power Millimeter-Band EMR for Medical Grade. Moscow: IRE AN USSR; 1984. p. 18.
Andreev EA, Belyiy MU, Kutsenok VA, Levinets LS, Pyasetskiy VI, Sitko SP, et al. The physical basis of the microwave (bioresonance) correction of the physiological conditions of the human body. The use of millimeter radiation of low intensity in biology and medicine. Мoscow; 1985. p. 58-83.
Romadanov AP, Gostev VI, Lyaschenko DS, Kaydash IN. Antenna properties of Chinese acupuncture needles. Vrachebnoe Delo. 1984;8:93-7.
Grachev VI, Kolesov VV. Methods and apparatus for EHF-puncture therapy. Radiolectron Nanosyst Inform Technol. 2009;1(1-2):171-194.
Zemskov BC, Korpan HH, Hohlich YI, Pavlenko VA, Nazarenko LS, et al. The effect of low-intensity millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation on wound healing. Klinicheskaya Hirurgiya. 1988;1:31-3.
Gassanov LG, Pisanko OI, Pyasetskiy VI. The use of low-intensity electromagnetic EHF for the treatment of uncomplicated gastroduodenal ulcers. Electronic Industry. 1987;1:31-3.
Gassanov LG, Pyasetskiy VI, Pisanko OI. The role of the environmental factor in the interaction of low-intensity electromagnetic fields of extremely high frequency with the human body. Visnyk of the NAS of Ukraine. 1988;10:33-8.
Gassanov LG, Pisanko OI, Pyasetskiy VI. Devices "Electronics-EHF" and their use in biology and medicine. Kyiv: Znanie; 1990. p. 1-26.
Pyasetskiy VI, Baharev AM, Pisanko OI, Kutsenok VA, Babichenko ME. Clinical and instrumental studies of physiological reactions in EHF-therapy of peptic ulcer. In: Devyatkov ND, Betskij OV, editors. Millimeter Waves in Medicine, vol. 1. Мoscow; 1991. p. 16-31.
Markov MS. Expanding use of pulsed electromagnetic field therapies. Electromagn Biol Med. 2007 Jan;26(3):257-74. DOI: 10.1080/15368370701580806
Consales C, Merla C, Marino C, Benassi B. Electromagnetic fields, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration. Int J Cell Biol. 2012 Jun;19:1-16. DOI: 10.1155/2012/683897
Markov M. XXIst century magnetotherapy. Electromagn Biol Med. 2015 Jul;34(3):190-6. DOI: 10.3109/15368378.2015.1077338
Shigemitsu T, Ueno S. Biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields related to the operation of MRI/TMS. Spin. 2017 Dec;7(4):1740009. DOI: 10.1142/S2010324717400094
Voĭchuk SI. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism for studying the carcinogenicity of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields and radiation. Mikrobiolohichnyi Zhurnal 2014;76(1):53-61.
Hardell L, Nyberg R. Appeals that matter or not on a moratorium on the deployment of the fifth generation, 5G, for microwave radiation. Mol Clin Oncol. 2020 Mar;12(3):247-57. DOI: 10.3892/mco.2020.1984
GOST Style Citations
1. The protective effect of melatonin on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields of mobile phone‐induced testicular damage in an experimental mouse model
Mitra Shokri, Mohammad E. Shamsaei, Abbasali K. Malekshah, Fereshteh T. Amiri
Andrologia Vol: 52 Issue: 11 Year: 2020
Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.