High Exoelectrogenic Biofilms Formation in Microbial Fuel Cells
Keywords:Microbial fuel cells, Biofilm, Exoelectrogens, Electrochemical activity
Background. Microbial fuel cells are devices in which electricity is generated by microorganisms called exoelectrogens. During the process of anaerobic respiration exoelectrogens emit electrons outside the cell. These electrons can be transferred to the anode of biofuel cell via several different mechanisms. Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells depends primarily on the electrochemical activity of the exoelectrogens present in the anode space. Nowadays, the usage of microorganisms, immobilized as biofilms on the anode, is constantly increasing. Natural sources for exoelectrogens selection such as activated sludge, biofilter biofilms, sediments of seas and rivers have a very diverse microbial composition. Therefore, it is important to immobilize relatively deficient in natural sources exoelectrogens on the anode during the biofilm formation process. The main research areas are the development of a technique for obtaining of electroactive biofilms enriched with exoelectrogens along with reduction of the period of biofilm formation process.
Objective. We set a goal to study the process of high exoelectrogenic biofilm formation basing on the combination of different methods of exoelectrogens isolation and immobilization at the anode of a microbial fuel cell.
Methods. A three-stage technique was used to obtain a highly exoelectrogenic biofilm which, due to the combination of typical isolation and immobilization techniques of exoelectrogens, allows obtaining the biofilm in which the vast majority of microorganisms are exoelectrogens. In the first stage, a biofilter biofilm was used as a source of exoelectrogens. The biofilm formed in the first stage was used as an inoculum for the second stage of biofilm formation. During the second stage an additional selective factor (applied additional potential in the electrical circuit of the microbial fuel cell) was used. The third stage of biofilm formation was the isolation of exoelectrogens capable of reducing ferum (III) compounds from secondary biofilm with subsequent application of these cells as inoculum.
Results. The usage of the proposed method allows obtaining of a biofilm enriched with exoelectrogenic bacteria. The maximum current density generated by the biofilm, obtained during the first stage, reaches 140 μA/cm2, during the second – 400 μA/cm2, during the third – 615 μA/cm2. The duration of biofilm formation at each stage was 110 h, 40 h, and 60 h, respectively.Conclusions. It has been proven that the duration of biofilm formation is reduced almost twice as a result of a combination of typical methods of isolation and immobilization of exoelectrogens; obtained biofilm has high electrochemical activity and properties similar to biofilm, formed by pure cultures of exoelectrogens.
Chowdhury H, Loganathan B. Third-generation biofuels from microalgae: a review. Curr Opin Green Sustain Chem. 2019;20:39-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.cogsc.2019.09.003
Bazarnova Y, Lyskova N, Kuznetsova T, Trukhina E. Illumination influence on Chlorella sorokiniana biomass synthesis. Biotechnologia Acta. 2019;12(3):50-6. DOI: 10.15407/biotech12.03.050
Logan BE, Aelterman P, Hamelers B, Rozendal R, Schroeder U, Keller J, et al. Microbial fuel cells: methodology and technology. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2006;40:5181-92. DOI: 10.1021/es0605016
Du Z, Li H, Gu T. A state of the art review on microbial fuel cells: A promising technology forwastewater treatment and bioenergy. Biotech Advances. 2007;25:464-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2007.05.004
Kumar SS, Kumar V, Malyan SK, Sharma J, Maskarenj M, Pugazhendhi A, et al. Microbial fuel cells for bioelectrochemical treatment of different wastewater streams. Fuel. 2019;254:1155262. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2019.05.109
Lohar SA, Patil V D, Patil DB. Role of mediators in microbial fuel cell for generation of electricity and wastewater treatment. Int J Chem Sci Applic. 2015;6(1):6-11.
Sund CJ, McMasters S, Crittenden SR, Harrell LE, Sumner JJ. Effect of electron mediators on current generation and fermentation in microbial fuel cells. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;76(3):561-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-007-1038-1
Adebule AP, Aderie BI, Adebayo AA. Improving bioelectricity generation of microbial fuel cell (MFC) with mediators using kitchen waste as a substrate. Ann Appl Microbiol Biotechnol J. 2018;2(1):1008.
Tharali AD, Sain N, Osborne WJ. Microbial fuel cells in bioelectricity production. Front Life Sci. 2016;9(4):252-66. DOI: 10.1080/21553769.2016.1230787
Greenman J, Gajda I, Ieropoulos I. Microbial fuel cells (MFC) and microalgae; photo microbial fuel cells (PMFC) as complete recycling machines. Sustain Energy Fuels. 2019;3(10):2546-60. DOI: 10.1039/C9SE00354A
Zhang L, Zhang B, Zhu X, Chang H, Ou S, Wang H. Role of bioreactors in microbial biomass and energy conversion. In: Liao Q, Chang J, Herrmann C, Xia A, editors. Bioreactors for microbial biomass and energy conversion. Green energy and technology. Singapor: Springer; 2018. p. 39-78. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-7677-0_2
Cao Y, Mu H, Liu W, Zhang R, Guo J. Xian M, Liu H. Electrisigens in the anode of microbial fuel cells: pure cultures versus mixed communities. Microb Cell Fact. 2019;18:39. DOI: 10.1186/s12934-019-1087-z
Arbianti R, Utami TS, Leondo V, Syafira E, Putri A, Hermansyah H. Effect of biofilm and selective mixed culture on microbial fuel cell for treatment of tempeh industrial wastewater. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng. 2018;316:012073. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/316/1/012073
Kuzminskiy Y, Shchurska K, Samarukha I, Lagod G. Bioelectrochemical hydrogen and electricity production. Theoretical bases, description and modeling of the process. Lublin: Politechnika Lubelska; 2013. 102 p.
Zubchenko L, Kuzminskiy Y. Characteristics of biofilm formation process in the bioelectrochemical systems, working in batch-mode of cultivation. Chem Chem Technol. 2017;11:105-10. DOI: 10.23939/chcht11.01.105
Lovley DR. The microbe electric: conversion of organic matter to electricity current. Opinion Biotechnol. 2008;19:1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.copbio.2008.10.005
Vogl A, Bischof F, Wichern M.Surface to surface biofilm transfer: a quick and reliable startup strategy for mixed culture microbial fuel cells. Water Sci Technol. 2016;73(8):1769-76. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2016.003
Koók L, Rózsenberszki T, Nemestóthy N, Bélafi-Bakó K, Kook PB. Bioelectrochemical treatment of municipal waste liquor in microbial fuel cells for energy valorization. J Cleaner Prod. 2016;112:4406-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.06.116
Cheng S, Liu H, Logan BE. Increased performance of single-chamber microbial fuel cells using an improved cathode structure. Electrochem Comm. 2006;8:489-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2006.01.010
Logan B, Cheng S, Watson V, Estadt G. Graphite fiber brush anodes for increased power production in air-cathode microbial fuel cells. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41(9):3341-6. DOI: 10.1021/es062644y
Wang A, Sun D, Ren N, Liu C, Liu W, Logan BE, Wu WM. A rapid selection strategy for an anodophilic consortium for microbial fuel cells. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101(14):5733-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.056
Kim BH, Park HS, Kim HJ, Kim GT, Chang IS, Lee J, Phung NT. Enrichment of microbial community generating electricity using a fuel-cell-type electrochemical cell. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;63:672-81. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-003-1412-6
Roden EE, Lovley DR. Dissimilatory Fe(III) Reduction by the Marine Microorganism Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993;59:734-42.
Liu Y, Harnisch F, Fricke K, Sietmann R, Schröder U. Improvement of the anodic bioelectrocatalytic activity of mixed culture biofilms by a simple consecutive electrochemical selection procedure. Biosens Bioelectron. 2008;24(4):1006-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2008.08.001
Shchurska KO, Zubchenko LS, Kuzminskyy YV. Method of high exoelectrogenic biofilms formation in bioelectrochemical systems. Visnyk NUWEE. 2016;4(761):228-39.
Bond DR, Lovley DR. Electricity production by Geobacter sulfurreducens attached to electrodes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:1548-55. DOI: 10.1128/aem.69.3.1548-1555.2003
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The ownership of copyright remains with the Authors.
Authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute” as the Publisher.
Authors are reminded that it is their responsibility to comply with copyright laws. It is essential to ensure that no part of the text or illustrations have appeared or are due to appear in other publications, without prior permission from the copyright holder.IBB articles are published under Creative Commons licence:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under CC BY 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.