Biosynthetic Potential of Actinomycetes from Helianthemum stevenii Rupr. Ex Juz. & Pozd. Rhizosphere
Background. Today the actual problems of humanity are the high frequency of the emergence of new multi-resistant pathogenic microorganisms, lack of food and pollution, especially agro-ecosystems. Screening of new natural products and introducing them in medicine, veterinary medicine, agriculture, etc. is one of the approaches to solving these problems. Objects of particular interest are actinomycetes – record holders in the production of biologically active compounds.
Objective. The purpose of the paper is evaluation of the biosynthetic properties of actinomycetes from the rhizosphere of the endemic Helianthemum stevenii Rupr. Ex Juz & Pozd. from Crimean peninsula.
Methods. Samples of the H. stevenii Rupr. Ex Juz & Pozd. rhizosphere were taken on the southern slopes of the Nikita Range (Crimean Peninsula). Actinomycetes were isolated by direct sowing of the washed rhizosphere, aqua solution of phenol treatment of the roots, or by heating them at 100 °C within 60 minutes and sowing on the nutrient medium. Antibacterial and anti-candidiasis activities were studied by culturing the actinomycetes strains by a prick on the oat medium and pouring the 0.7% agar with a certain test culture. Antifungal properties were studied by putting the agar block with a 5-day fungal culture on cups with 3-day cultures of actinomycetes and subsequent incubation for 4 days. An activity index (AI) was determined by the ratio of the diameter zone of the inhibit growth test-cultures to the diameter of the actinomycetes colonies. Phytostimulants and enzymatic properties were studied by commonly accepted methods.
Results. 107 actinomycetes strains from H. stevenii Rupr. Ex Juz. & Pozd. rhizosphere were isolated. 23.2% of isolates inhibited growth of one or more typical microbial test cultures which are capable of causing a disease in humans. 8.4% of the actinomycetes strains were antagonists of S. аureus, the less actinomycetes strains inhibited gram-negative test cultures. AI of these strains was no more than 3. 80.1% of isolates were antagonists of at least one strain of the phytopathogenic bacteria. AI of these strains was from 1.2 to 13. Antifungal activity was in the 15.9% of isolates and their AI was no more than 3. 17.8 of actinomycetes strains were capable of producing indole-3-acetic acid, 10.3% – siderophores and 14.2% – phosphate solubilizers. A significant proportion of actinomycetes strains was capable of producing hydrolytic enzymes: amylases, lipases, pectinases and proteases. 29.9% of isolates can discolour Azure B and 8.4% are potentially laccase producers.Conclusions. The ability of actinomycetes strains from H. stevenii Rupr. Ex Juz. & Pozd. rhizosphere to produce antimicrobial compounds, enzymes and plants growth promoting (PGP) compounds was evaluated. Actinomycetes strains with wide range and specific inhibit certain pathogenic strain were selected as well as strains that specifically inhibit the growth of a particular strain of pathogenic microorganisms. A number of phytopathogenic bacteria antagonists tend to phytostimulation. The producers of hydrolases and oxidoreductase were isolated.
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