DOI: https://doi.org/10.20535/ibb.2019.3.2.164790

Prostat-Specific Antigen: Biochemical, Molecular-Biological, and Analytical Aspects

Yana Sydyakina, Anastasia Sivakova, Anatolii Komar, Alexander Galkin

Abstract


Background. Prostate cancer incidence in the world and in Ukraine is steadily increasing due to the difficulties of early diagnosis and late detection of the disease. For a diagnosis of prostate cancer tests for specific blood markers detection in the human blood serum are used, first of all, tests for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) detection – glycoprotein with enzymatic activity, which is secreted by the cells of the prostate. Detection of PSA has a number of analytical features due to biochemical and serological properties of some PSA forms, which, in turn, results in the continuous improvement of methods for its detection.

Objective. Analysis of modern scientific data on the biochemical and molecular biological properties of PSA, as well as methods for its measurement in human biological fluids.

Methods. The literature data on the molecular bases of synthesis, biochemical features and the role of PSA in the human body are systematized and analyzed, modern data on methods for PSA measurement are analyzed critically.

Results. PSA has peculiarities of the biosynthesis and post-translational modifications, which directly affect its functions in the human body and the activity of the serum marker in prostate cancer diagnostics. Modern methods of analysis allow to deteсt most of the forms of PSA with high sensitivity. The most common methods of clinical laboratory diagnosis are enzyme immunoassay and immunochromatography.

Conclusions. Analysis of the literature has shown that in the future further studies on the role of PSA for other than the prostate organs of a person will be carried on, as well as the development and improvement of tests for prostate cancer diagnostic and detection of other oncological diseases with the use of PSA, for example, breast cancer, will take place.

Keywords


Prostate-specific antigen; Prostate cancer; Human kallikrein 3; Serine proteinase; Prostate-specific antigen detection methods

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