Technological Solution of Biogas Output Increasing at Grain Distillery Spent Wash Fermentation
Keywords:Granulation, Biogas, Distillery spent wash, Fermentation, Methane
Background. Distillery spent wash is the main waste of the alcohol industry. This is highly concentrated wastewater, which is characterized by high chemical oxygen demand (COD) values – up to 60–120 g O2/dm3 – and low pH values – up to 3.7. It makes its processing a complicated task. One of the methods of its utilization is anaerobic fermentation with the production of biogas. Inert carriers for microorganism immobilization or granulation are used to intensify the process of anaerobic treatment and increase sludge concentration. Due to the high concentration of anaerobic microorganisms in granules, compared to the number of microorganisms in free-floating active sludge, the process of methanogenesis is more intensive with a high yield of biogas and a decrease in COD.
Objective. To determine the possible centres of anaerobic sludge granulation in highly concentrated waste of alcohol production to increase biogas output in the process of waste treatment.
Methods. Activated carbon, modified carbon on which surface calcium ions were precipitated, FeCl3, silica gel based sorbent, talc based sorbent were used to form pellets as the centres of microorganism accumulation.
Results. Pellets have not been formed with the use of activated carbon; modified carbon with calcium ions; silica gel based sorbent and ferrum compounds. Pellets of activated sludge were received with the use of talc based sorbent – formation of initial biofilm on a carrier was observed on the third day of fermentation and then it was growing in pellets.Conclusions. It was demonstrated that for highly concentrated waste effluents of a distillery (grain distillery spent wash), which after co-fermentation with poultry manure contain volatile fatty acids in concentration 800–2000 mg/dm3, it is needed to use sorbents to receive microorganism pellets as a centre of granulation. Sorbents must contain donors and proton acceptors. It was established that the use of granular activated sludge for the distillery waste purification improves the efficiency of COD and Biochemical Oxygen Demand removal by 15–17%, increases biogas output by 26 ± 2% and biogas methane content by 8 ± 1%.
Mohana S, Acharya BK, Datta M. Distillery spent wash: Treatment technologies and potential applications. J Hazard Mater. 2009;163(1):12-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.079
Henze M, Armoes P, La-Cour-Jansen J, Arvan E. Wastewater treatment. Biological and chemical processes: Educational publication. Moscow: Mir; 2006. 471 p.
Hutnan M, Hornak M, Bodik I, Hlavacka V. Anaerobic treatment of wheat stillage. Chem Biochem Eng Q. 2003;17(3):233-41.
Golub NB, Potapova MV. Technology for obtaining biogas from distillery spent wash. Vidnovluvana Energetika. 2018,1:88-95.
Kolesnikov VP, Vilson EV. Modern development of technological processes of wastewater treatment in combined facilities. Rostov-on-Don: Yuh; 2005. 212 p.
Hulshoff Pol LW, de Castro Lopes SI, Lettinga G, Lens PNL. Anaerobic sludge granulation. Water Res. 2004;38(6):1376-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2003.12.002
Schmidt JE, Ahring BK. Granular sludge formation in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1996;49(3):229-46. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0290(19960205)49:33.0.CO;2-M
Lim SJ, Kim TH. Applicability and trends of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. Biomass Bioenergy. 2014;60:189-202. DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.11.011
McHugh Sh, O'Reilly C, Mahony Th, Colleran E, O'Flaherty V. Anaerobic granular sludge bioreactor technology. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol. 2003;2(2-4):225-45. DOI: 10.1023/B:RESB.0000040465.45300.97
Liu Yu, Xu HL, Yang ShF, Tay JH. Mechanisms and models for anaerobic granulation in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Water Res. 2003;37(3):661-73. DOI: 1016/S0043-1354(02)00351-2
Lurye YuYu. Analytical chemistry of industrial wastewater. Moscow: Khimiia; 1984. 448 p.
Laboratory ionomer I-160 MI. Manual. St. Petersburg: OOO "Measuring equipment"; 2007. 70 p.
Chromatograph laboratory LXM-8MD: Technical description, instruction manual. Moscow: Experimental plant "Chromatograph"; 1992. 50 p.
Shimadzu High-Performance Liquid Chromatograph. Shimadzu corporation; 2010. 45 p.
Ahn YH. Physicochemical and microbial aspects of anaerobic granular pellets. J Environ Sci Health. 2000;35(9):17-35. DOI: 10.1080/10934520009377059
Sam-Soon PALNS, Loewenthal RE, Dold PL, Marais GvR. Hypothesis for pelletisation in the upﬂow anaerobic sludge bed reactor. Water SA. 1987;13(2):69-80.
Habeeb SA, Abdul Latiff AAB, Daud ZB, Ahmad ZB. A review on granules initiation and development inside UASB Reactor and the main factors affecting granules formation process. Int J Energy Environ. 2011;2(2):311-20.
Van Loosdrecht MCM, Zehnder AJB. Energetics of bacterial adhesion. Experientia. 1990;46(8):817-22. DOI: 10.1007/BF01935531
Thaveesri J, Daffonchio D, Liessens B, Vandermeren P, Verstraete W. Granulation and sludge bed stability in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors in relation to surface thermodynamics. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995;61(10):3681-6.
Tay JH, Xu HL, Teo KC. Molecular mechanism of granulation. I: H+ translocation-dehydration theory. J Environ Eng. 2000;126(5):403-10. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2000)126:5(403)
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The ownership of copyright remains with the Authors.
Authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute” as the Publisher.
Authors are reminded that it is their responsibility to comply with copyright laws. It is essential to ensure that no part of the text or illustrations have appeared or are due to appear in other publications, without prior permission from the copyright holder.IBB articles are published under Creative Commons licence:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under CC BY 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.