DOI: https://doi.org/10.20535/ibb.2018.2.2.125733

Modern Methods of Processing and Utilization of Grain Distillery Spent Wash

Nataliia Golub, Mariana Potapova

Abstract


Across the world, the alcohol industry has faced the problem of accumulation of waste alcohol production distillery spent wash. Due to high chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, specific color and odor, low pH, disposal of such waste in the filtration fields or discharge into the reservoir is impossible. The purpose of this article is: (1) analysis of existing methods for processing grain distillery spent wash; (2) definition of tasks that need to be solved for its effective utilization; (3) determination of the most promising and effective methods for processing the grain distillery spent wash. It is established that the existing methods of its processing are biological and physico-chemical and the use in agriculture of both raw distillery spent wash and products of its processing. The simplest methods of utilization of the grain distillery spent wash are its use for feeding cattle or fertigation, since a wide range of mineral and nutrient substances is present in the distillery spent wash. Due to the formation of large volumes of these wastes and their rapid souring, these methods are ineffective. Today, methods are used for obtaining mixed fodders from distillery spent wash by evaporating, drying and granulating the solid fraction of the spent wash. Since the distillery spent wash has a high humidity, the production of mixed fodder from it is unprofitable. Aerobic treatment of the distillery spent wash justifies itself only when using the separation of solid and liquid fractions, during the subsequent processing of the liquid fraction. Another way to increase the effectiveness of aerobic treatment is to use a complex of mesophilic and thermophilic aerobic bacteria, which complicates the process of distillery spent wash utilization. At present time, the methods of anaerobic digestion of the distillery spent wash with the production of biogas are being investigated. The problem is a low pH, which inhibits the process of methanogenesis. Therefore, research in the direction of pH stabilization and the technology of conducting the fermentation process is an urgent task of processing distillery spent wash. Due to the formation of an energy carrier and the waste transformation into high-quality fertilizer (anaerobic digestion products), this method is effective and economically viable.

Keywords


Distillery spent wash; Utilization; Processing; Fertigation; Drying; Aerobic digestion; Fodder yeast; Anaerobic digestion; Biogas

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