DOI: https://doi.org/10.20535/ibb.2018.2.1.119233

Priority Directions of Development of Ecobiotechnology. 1. Environmental Biotechnology

Yevgeniy Kuzminskyy, Kateryna Shchurska

Abstract


Total development of society through technogenesis and strengthening of its influence on the biosphere has led to conflict between humanity, on the one hand, and its environment, on the other. Elimination of all these problems is impossible without the use of the latest environmental technologies or ecobiotechnologies for waste water treatment, disposal of hazardous gas emissions, using of promising ways of solid and liquid industrial waste utilization, environmental pollution diagnostics, the efficiency improvement of contaminated soil biological recovery, the replacement of a number of agrochemicals on biotechnological products, to name a few. Today, biotechnology is present in one component or another in all the trends of the developed countries of the world. By incorporating the results of the research of the aforementioned sciences, biotechnology has become the driving force of the 21st century. The article defines the subject of environmental biotechnology as an independent field of biotechnology and presents current trends in the development of environmental biotechnologies, focuses on the world-view importance of ecobiotechnology in comparison with traditional – industrial biotechnology. Classical traditional biotechnology, as part of the technology of an industrial society, answers the question "How to make money?" The main goal of traditional biotechnology is to increase the added value (receiving of profit is above all). Ecological biotechnology as an integral part of the future society (Knowledge Society) answers the question "How to coexist?" and aims to increase the quality and safety of life of society members, which differs from traditional industrial biotechnology. The following priority directions of ecological biotechnology, such as biotesting, optimization of ecosystem processes, recycling, and utilization of civilian waste, water, air and soil purification, are substantiated. Solving the problems of each of these areas, both theoretically and practically, can be done not only thanks to ecological biotechnology. However, the use of ecobiotechnology in many cases is the most optimal solution. The biotechnology of environmental protection, which includes technologies for the purification of all three of its main components (water, soil, and air), is a key approach to prevent anthropogenic environmental impact, as well as to overcome the consequences of man-made accidents with the release of harmful compounds into the environment.

Keywords


Environmental biotechnologies; Ecobiotechnology; Bioenergy; Biotesting; Ecosystem processes; Waste treatment; Biodegradation

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