Innovative Biosystems and Bioengineering <p>The international scientific journal Innovative Biosystems and Bioengineering was founded in 2017. IBB introduces a systems approach to life sciences problems.</p> <p>IBB is a quarterly peer-reviewed Open Access e-journal in which readers, immediately upon online publication, can access articles free of costs and subscription charges.</p> <p>e-ISSN 2616-177X</p> <p>Founder: National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”.</p> <p>Frequency: 4 issues a year.</p> <p>We accept papers in following languages: English, Ukrainian.</p> <p>Cite the title as: Innov Biosyst Bioeng.</p> <p>Readership: Biotechnologists, Biologists, Biophysicists, Bioinformaticists, Biomedical researchers and engineers, Medical, biochemical, and pharmaceutical scientists.</p> <p>Keywords: Applied biology, Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Biophysics, Bioinformatics, Bioorganic chemistry, Biomedicine, Biochemical engineering, Biomaterials, Bioprocess engineering.</p> <p>Indexing: DOAJ; ROAD; HINARI; Chemical Abstracts Service; CNKI Scholar; Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers; J-Gate; Public Knowledge Project Index; ICMJE; JournalTOCs; WCOSJ; Vifabio; EZB; Federation of Finnish Learned Societies; Zeitschriftendatenbank; Polska Bibliografia Naukowa; Scilit; Bielefeld Academic Search Engine; OpenAir; WorldCat.</p> en-US <p><span>The ownership of copyright remains with the Authors.</span></p><p>Authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute” as the Publisher.</p><p>Authors are reminded that it is their responsibility to comply with copyright laws. It is essential to ensure that no part of the text or illustrations have appeared or are due to appear in other publications, without prior permission from the copyright holder.</p>IBB articles are published under Creative Commons licence:<br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under <a href="">CC BY 4.0</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br /><br /></li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.<br /><br /></li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li></ol> (Liudmyla Trotsenko) (Liudmyla Trotsenko) Thu, 22 Apr 2021 19:35:47 +0000 OJS 60 Nosocomial Infections: Pathogenicity, Resistance and Novel Antimicrobials <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>.</strong> The fight against the spread of infectious diseases creates the problem of resistance to pathogens and the most resistant of them – the propagators of nosocomial infections – are formed in hospitals because of a number of reasons. The solution of the problem lies in different areas, but the search of new effective means for the treatment of such diseases remains relevant right today. The shortest way to do this is to find the "pain points" of the pathogens themselves, i.e. the factors of their pathogenicity and resistance to which the action of novel antiseptics should be directed.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> We aimed to analyse and evaluate the main factors of pathogenicity and resistance of pathogens of nosocomial infections to determine modern approaches to the development of novel antimicrobials.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>.</strong> Search and systematization of new scientific data and results concerning pathogenic factors of microbial pathogens that can be used as targets for the action of drugs.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Over the last 10–20 years, due to the development of new research methods in biology, it has become possible to clarify the features and additional conditions for the detection of pathogenic factors of nosocomial infections. Additional mechanisms of manifestation of resistance, adhesiveness, invasiveness, transmission of signs, secretion of toxins by pathogens are shownthat determines the general increase of their resistance to the action of currently used means. The general idea of ​​creating antiseptics that will not increase the resistance of pathogens can now be implemented by using substances with multidirectional or indirect mechanisms of action that minimally affect the metabolism of the cell and significantly reduce its resistance and pathogenicity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>Factors of pathogenicity of propagators of nosocomial infections and mechanisms of their implementation can be considered as the main targets for the action of novel antiseptics that will inhibit the spread of pathogens without increasing their resistance. The promising substances for such drugs, among other things, are bacteriophages and their modifications, enzybiotics, immunobiotics, autoinducer inhibitors, quorum sensing-system inhibitors, b-lactamase inhibitors and others. Some of these substances in combination with the new generation of antibiotics significantly enhance their effectiveness and together they are able to overcome the resistance of even multidrug-resistant pathogens.</p> Lin Wu, Zhi Cheng Wu, Tetiana Todosiichuk, Oleksandra Korneva Copyright (c) 2021 The autror(s) Thu, 22 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Visible and Real Sizes of New COVID-19 Pandemic Waves in Ukraine <p><strong>Background. </strong>To simulate the COVID-19 pandemic dynamics, various data sets and different mathematical models can be used. In particular, previous simulations for Ukraine were based on smoothing of the dependence of the number of cases on time, classical and the generalized SIR (susceptible-infected-removed) models. Different simulation and comparison methods were based on official accumulated number of laboratory confirmed cases and the data reported by Johns Hopkins University. Since both datasets are incomplete (a very large percentage of infected persons are asymptomatic), the accuracy of calculations and predictions is limited. In this paper we will try to assess the degree of data incompleteness and correct the relevant forecasts.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> We aimed to estimate the real sizes of two new epidemic waves in Ukraine and compare them with visible dynamics based on the official number of laboratory confirmed cases. We also aimed to estimate the epidemic durations and final numbers of cases.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> In this study we use the generalized SIR model for the epidemic dynamics and its known exact solution. The known statistical approach is adopted in order to identify both the degree of data incompleteness and parameters of SIR model.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>We have improved the method of estimating the unknown parameters of the generalized SIR model and calculated the optimal values ​​of the parameters. In particular, the visibility coefficients and the optimal values of the model parameters were estimated for two pandemic waves in Ukraine occurred in December 2020–March 2021. The real number of cases and the real number of patients spreading the infection versus time were calculated. Predictions of the real final sizes and durations of the pandemic in Ukraine are presented. If current trends continue, the end of the pandemic should be expected no earlier than in August 2022.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>New method of the unknown parameters identification for the generalized SIR model was proposed, which allows estimating the coefficients of data incompleteness as well. Its application for two pandemic waves in Ukraine has demonstrated that the real number of COVID-19 cases is approximately four times higher than those shown in official statistics. Probably, this situation is typical for other countries. The reassessments of the COVID-19 pandemic dynamics in other countries and clarification of world forecasts are necessary.</p> Igor Nesteruk Copyright (c) 2021 The autror(s) Mon, 03 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Toxicity Assessment of Waste From Mechanical Processing of Polymers by Biotesting <p><strong>Background.</strong> Biotesting allows us to take into account the complex relationships between soil, pollution and living organisms, as well as to determine the impact of minimum concentrations of pollutants on ecosystems. It is more informative than determining the minimum concentration values.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> We are aimed to analyze the phytotoxicity assessment of sludge from mechanical processing of polymer mixtures extracted from solid household waste.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The object of the study is waste from mechanical processing of polymer mixtures, represented by sludge after washing of crushed polymers, that is composed of particles of polymers of various compositions ranging in size from 0.5 to 2.7 mm (87.3 to 92.6 % of the total amount), as well as residues of paper labels from 7.4 to 12.6% of the total amount. The assessment of phytotoxic effects was carried out by vegetative methods in accordance with ISO 17402-2008, ISO 17126-2005a, ISO 22030:2005b, ISO 11269-1:2012a, MP "Guidelines. Justification of the hazard class of production and consumption waste by phytotoxicity". The contamination levels of the test samples were assessed according to ISO 11269-2:2002 and MR Biotesting was carried out on the following types of plants: watercress, mustard, wheat, corn, soy, barley. The study of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni) was carried out by atomic absorption method with a spectrophotometer of the CAS-120.1 type. The obtained results were processed using traditional statistical methods applying licensed computer programs Microsoft Excel and StatSoft STATISTICA 10.0.1011.0.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The studied sludge does not have a negative effect on the process of germination of watercress, mustard, corn. The level of phytotoxic effect of sludge on the germination of soybeans and barley was within the permissible range and did not exceed 3.33 %. When assessing the vegetative properties of the studied plants, it was found that in the process of growing corn, wheat, barley and soy, the sludge does not have a phytotoxic effect. When the concentration of added sludge changed, the phytotoxic effect on the length of the roots and stems of watercress and mustard was medium (cress) and weak (mustard). The study of the migration of heavy metals present in the growth substrates and their accumulation during the growth and development of plants showed an insignificant content of heavy metals in plants in all the studied samples with different sludge content. The lead content is 1.83 times higher compared to the control samples and 2.13 times higher compared to the samples on "conditionally clean" soiland 14% lower compared to the norms of SRN 42-123-4089-86 "MAC of heavy metals and arsenic in food raw materials and food products".</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>.</strong> The assessment of the phytotoxic effect of the sludge obtained in the process of mechanical processing of polymer raw materials has established that it is rational to determine the phytotoxicity of this type of sludge on the germination process and vegetation changes of plants on the most sensitive crops, such as cress and mustard. The mobile forms of lead that migrates from plant substrates and sludge into plants and accumulates in them are determined. Migration of bound forms of heavy metals copper, nickel, cadmium and zinc has not been established.</p> Olga Malyshevska Copyright (c) 2021 The autror(s) Mon, 14 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Modern Methods of Degumming of Vegetable Oils: An Analytical Review <p>The review article compares and discusses the most common ways to degumming vegetable oils. Its purpose is to update the information on this stage of vegetable oil refining in order to provide an opportunity to choose the optimal degumming method for the manufacturer. Degumming is the first of the stages of oil processing, designed to remove phospholipids, the presence of which makes it impossible to carry out high-quality performance of all subsequent stages of refining. The fractional composition of plant phospholipids of various oils is presented, the features of their structure, which affect their hydrophilicity, are considered. Various theoretical approaches to the degumming process are considered. The article compares the disadvantages, advantages and effectiveness of aqueous, acidic, enzymatic degumming, total degumming, and soft degumming. Enzymatic degumming is today considered the main method for extracting phospholipids from oils. Under industrial conditions, for oils with a low phospholipid content (for example, sunflower oil), the use of phospholipases in order to obtain a low-phosphoric oil (less than 10 ppm) is reasonable (with an eye to reducing oil losses at this stage). But this is only possible if preliminary acid degumming is carried out. The advantages and difficulties of enzymatic degumming are considered. The combination of acid degumming with alkaline neutralization is perhaps the most effective and easiest way to obtain oil with a low residual phospholipid content. Despite the traditional nature of this approach, it remains highly effective, the easiest to implement, and inexpensive. The intensification of the mixing of the phases "oil–degumming agent" leads to a significant increase in the efficiency of degumming. The article discusses the use of ultrasonic and cavitation devices for this purpose. A promising direction in the development of food industry technologies today is the use of membranes. The features of this physical method of degumming are considered. The selected type of degumming and the conditions for its implementation affect not only the composition and performance of oils, but also the quality and safety of a valuable by-product of this stage – lecithin. The highest quality lecithin is obtained as a result of water or enzymatic degumming – water or aqueous solutions of enzymes do not negatively affect the quality indicators of lecithin, its composition. Lecithin obtained by water degumming contains almost no non-hydrophilic phospholipids. Lecithin obtained using phospholipases contains increased amounts of lysoforms of phospholipids, which positively affects its surfactant properties.</p> Anastasiia Demydova, Fedir Gladky, Tetiana Berezka Copyright (c) 2021 The Author(s) Wed, 16 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000