Innovative Biosystems and Bioengineering <p>The international scientific journal Innovative Biosystems and Bioengineering was founded in 2017. IBB introduces a systems approach to life sciences problems.</p> <p>IBB is a quarterly peer-reviewed Open Access e-journal in which readers, immediately upon online publication, can access articles free of costs and subscription charges.</p> <p>e-ISSN 2616-177X</p> <p>Founder and Publisher: National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”.</p> <p>Frequency: 4 issues a year.</p> <p>We accept papers in following languages: English, Ukrainian.</p> <p>Cite the title as: Innov Biosyst Bioeng.</p> <p>Readership: Biotechnologists, Bioengineers, Biomedical researchers and engineers, Biologists.</p> <p>Indexing: DOAJ; ROAD; HINARI; Chemical Abstracts Service; CNKI Scholar; Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers; J-Gate; Public Knowledge Project Index; ICMJE; JournalTOCs; WCOSJ; Vifabio; EZB; Federation of Finnish Learned Societies; Zeitschriftendatenbank; Polska Bibliografia Naukowa; Scilit; Bielefeld Academic Search Engine; OpenAir; WorldCat.</p> Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute en-US Innovative Biosystems and Bioengineering 2616-177X <p><span>The ownership of copyright remains with the Authors.</span></p><p>Authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute” as the Publisher.</p><p>Authors are reminded that it is their responsibility to comply with copyright laws. It is essential to ensure that no part of the text or illustrations have appeared or are due to appear in other publications, without prior permission from the copyright holder.</p>IBB articles are published under Creative Commons licence:<br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under <a href="">CC BY 4.0</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br /><br /></li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.<br /><br /></li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li></ol> Gaussian Filter for Brain SPECT Imaging <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>. </strong>The presence of a noise component on 3D images of single-photon emission computed tomo­graphy (SPECT) of a brain significantly distorts the probability distribution function (PD) of the radioactive count rate in the images. The presence of noise and further filtering of the data, based on a subjective assessment of image quality, have a significant impact on the calculation of volumetric cerebral blood flow and the values of the uptake asymmetry of the radiopharmaceutical in a brain.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> We are aimed to develop a method for optimal SPECT filtering of brain images with lipophilic radiopharmaceuticals, based on a Gaussian filter (GF), for subsequent image segmentation by the threshold method. </p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> SPECT images of the water phantom and the brain of patients with <sup>99m</sup>Tc-HMPAO were used. We have developed a technique for artificial addition of speckle noise to conditionally flawless data in order to determine the optimal parameters for smoothing SPECT, based on a GF. The quantitative criterion for optimal smoothing was the standard deviation between the PD of radioactive count rate of the smoothed image and conditionally ideal one.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>It was shown that the maximum radioactive count rate of the SPECT image has an extremum by changing the standard deviation of the GF in the range of 0.3–0.4 pixels. The greater the noise component in the SPECT image, the more quasi-linearly the corresponding rate changes. This dependence allows determining the optimal smoothing parameters. The application of the developed smoothing technique allows restoring the probability distribution function of the radioactive count rate (distribution histogram) with an accuracy up to 5–10%. This provides the possibility to standardize SPECT images of brain.</p> <p>Conclusions. The research results of work solve a specific applied problem: restoration of the histogram of a radiopharmaceuticals distribution in a brain for correct quantitative assessment of regional cerebral blood flow. In contrast to the well-known publications on the filtration of SPECT data, the work takes into account that the initial tomographic data are 3D, rather than 2D slices, and contain not only uniform random Gaussian noise, but also a pronounced speckle component.</p> Nikolay Nikolov Sergiy Makeyev Olga Korostynska Tetyana Novikova Yelizaveta Kriukova Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 1 4 15 10.20535/ibb.2022.6.1.128475 Use of Highly Dispersed Silica in Biotechnology of Complex Probiotic Product Based on Bifidobacteria <p><strong>Background.</strong> The probiotics immobilization technology is one of the most effective ways for controlled and continuous delivery of viable cells into the intestine. It is well known that multifaceted physiological roles of bifidobacteria are to normalize and stabilize the microbiocenosis, to form intestine colonization resistance, to synthesis amino acids, proteins and vitamins, to maintain non-specific resistance of the organism and so all. Such a wide range of positive effects on the macroorganism allows us to consider bifidobacteria as a basis for functional immobilized healthcare products development.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> Taxonomic position determination of the <em>Bifidobacterium longum</em> strain selected for immobilization, study of the viability of this bifidobacteria strain in a complex probionic product based on highly dispersed silica in simulated gastrointestinal tract's conditions and after freeze-drying.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The production strain <em>Bifidobacterium longum</em> IMV B-7165 from the Institute of Food Resources of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine collection of industrial strains has been used in the study. It was isolated from the healthy human infant's gastrointestinal tract.</p> <p>Commonly used bioinformatics, microbiological, biotechnological and statistical methods have been applied.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The best alignments for the sequence of bifidobacteria isolate "4202" 16S rRNA (it was previously deposited as <em>Bifidobacterium longum</em> IMV B-7165) and classic dendrograms based on these results were performed. According to the results of microscopic studies of samples of microorganisms with highly dispersed silica products ("Enterosgel", "Sillard P" and "Toxin.Net") it was found that the immobilization of the&nbsp;<em>Streptococcus t</em><em>h</em><em>ermophilus</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;bifidobacteria cultures did not differ fundamentally. To study the immobilization effect on the bifidobacteria preservation and properties the following carriers were used: "Enterosgel", "Toxin.NET" and "Sillard P". The survival of immobilized bifidobacteria was further studied in simulated gastrointestinal conditions: immobilized cells are better protected from acid and bile, although with increasing acidity, survival decreases in both control and immobilized cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The taxonomic position of a bifidobacterial isolate from the healthy human infants used in immobilization studies was clarificated (<em>Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis</em>). Under the simulated conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract in the case of acid and bile impact, the best survival was demonstrated by immobilized cultures of bifidobacteria together with the Enterosgel sorbent (a content of 10% by weight of the culture). The survival of immobilized preparations after freeze-drying was slightly reduced in the case of immobilization on the "Enterosgel" and "Toxin.NET" samples of enterosorbents (a content from 15% to 25% by weight of the culture). The best results were observed in the case of immobilization of bifidobacteria with 5% content of the "Toxin.NET" enterosorbent (enterosgel + inulin).</p> Svitlana Danylenko Lolita Marynchenko Viktoriia Bortnyk Oksana Potemska Olena Nizhelska Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-05-06 2022-05-06 6 1 16 24 10.20535/ibb.2022.6.1.256179 Development of a New Method for Obtaining the Bioplastics Based on Microbial Biopolymers and Lignin <p><strong>Background.</strong> The ever-increasing demand for plastic polymer products with simultaneous depleting fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, as well as the growing problem of waste disposal, creates a need to find alternative technologies that meet current trends in both environmental and economic development. Bioplastic materials that are synthesized from renewable sources and have the ability to biodegrade are considered as such an alternative. The main obstacle of modern bioplastics which makes it impossible to completely replace traditional plastics is the high cost of production. In order to reduce the cost of existing biopolymers, production waste is added to the polymer matrix. One such waste is lignin – the second most common biopolymer. An additional way to reduce the cost of production is to find more cost-effective producers. Thus, although the classical microbial synthesis has fairly high productivity, the source of carbon for the cultivation of microorganisms are sugars obtained from agricultural raw materials which could cause a threat for food industry. The new producer for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) is cyanobacteria, the carbon source of which is carbon (IV) oxide or gas emissions from enterprises, which reduces the cost of the target product.</p> <p><strong>Objective. </strong>Development of a method for obtaining bioplastics using products of microbial synthesis and lignin.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>Cyanobacteria <em>Nostoc commune </em>was grown using a nutrient medium BG-11 with subsequent limitation of Nitrogen for the synthesis of PHA. Hydrolyzed lignin from hardwoods was combined with polylactic acid (PLA) or cyanobacteria-synthesized PHA in different ratios with further casting of the solution to determine the ability of lignin and polymer matrix to form polymer films.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The content of PHA in the cells of cyanobacteria <em>Nostoc commune</em>, when grown in a nutrient medium limited to Nitrogen, reached 7.8%. The synthesized polymer films based on PLA and lignin were not homogeneous, and films based on PHA and lignin were fragile.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>The possibility of obtaining PHA by using cyanobacteria of the <em>Nostoc commune</em> species under environmental conditions that differ from the optimal ones for both cultivation and PHA production is shown. The possibility of obtaining a biopolymer based on lignin and PLA is shown. To form homogeneous films, it is necessary to change the standard conditions for obtaining a mixture of components. The interaction of lignin with PHA forms a homogeneous polymer mixture, which is fragile and requires the addition of plasticizers to obtain the necessary properties.</p> Angelina Yurchenko Nataliia Golub Li Jinping Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-05-08 2022-05-08 6 1 25 30 10.20535/ibb.2022.6.1.253658 Photosynthetic Pigments Content in Emmer Wheat Plants as Criteria of Productivity in Traditional and Organic Farming Technology <p><strong>Background.</strong> Estimation of chlorophyll and carotenoid content is an informative way to obtain ideas about the plants photosynthetic process and is an indirect method for assessing the productivity of plant crops, including cereals. As the worldwide interest at now for traditional and natural foods is growing, in the work we used one of the oldest grain crops – emmer wheat (<em>Triticum dicoccum (Schrank.) Schuebl.</em>) which was cultivated in traditional and organic farming system.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> The study aim was to determine the role of chlorophyll and carotenoids in the emmer wheat productivity formation by traditional and organic farming technology under different pre-sowing seed treatment systems.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. Field experiment was establishment during 2019–2021 on low-humus, hard-loam chernozems, the condition of which meets the “virgin land” criterion. The emmer wheat cultivation in organic technology was carried out in crop rotation: winter rye (green manure crop) – mustard (to improve the field phytosanitary condition and soil organic matter indicators) – emmer wheat. Two variants of pre-sowing seed treatment were studied: irradiation with ultraviolet light of the C range (100–280 nm) and seed treatment with 1r Seed Treatment humic preparation. The pre-sowing seed treatment in the traditional technology of the emmer wheat cultivation was carried out by the UV-C irradiation. In organic technology both UV-C irradiation and treatment with 1r Seed Treatment humic preparation of natural origin were used. Statistical data processing was performed by methods of descriptive statistics, regression and analysis of variance by the program Statistica 10.0. The experimental data significance was evaluated by using multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) to calculate the least significant difference (LSD<sub>05</sub>).</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>It was found the use of UV-C seeds irradiation in organic and traditional cultivation technologies leads to increase in the chlorophyll <em>a</em> (<em>Chl a</em>) content by 9.2 % and chlorophyll <em>b</em> (<em>Chl b</em>) content by 14.5 % in plants grown by organic technology, however to decrease in carotenoid content (<em>Ct</em>) by 14.9 %. The increase in the photosynthetic pigments content by UV-C seeds irradiation lead to yield increase from 4.26 t/ha by the traditional technology to 5.17 t/ha by the organic technology, ie by 21.4 %. In organic technology based on the comparison of the photosynthetic apparatus main indicators of the emmer wheat and yield, the most effective method for seed treatment was determined. It was established that at result of 1r Seed Treatment humic preparation application in pre-sowing seed treatment, the <em>Chl a </em>concentration decreased by 2.4 %, the <em>Chl b</em> and <em>Ct </em>concentration increased by 5 and 25.5 %, respectively, compared with plants grown from UV-C irradiated seeds. When 1r Seed Treatment was used for pre-sowing treatment yield was 5.58 t/ha, while at UV-C seed treatment – 5.17 t/ha, ie, the yield increase was 8 %. An inverse correlation between the ratio of the photosynthetic pigments <em>Chl a</em>/<em>Chl b</em> content and the emmer wheat yield was determined.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> According to the study results, it can be assumed that the introduction of organic farming technology with pre-sowing seed treatment by the 1r Seed Treatment humic preparation can increase the emmer wheat yield by 31% compared to the traditional technology. Thus, the photosynthetic pigments content and their ratio can be the effectiveness indicators of the implemented agricultural technologies.</p> Iryna Korotkova Tetiana Chaika Tamila Romashko Anna Rybalchenko Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-06-05 2022-06-05 6 1 31 39 10.20535/ibb.2022.6.1.255277 Antioxidant activity of petunias with the heterologous ribonuclease ZRNase II gene infected with tobacco mosaic virus <p><strong>Background.</strong> Constant changes in environmental conditions cause the development of stress reactions in plants. Under conditions of moderate intensity and temporary action of the stress factor, the strengthening of protective systems and the mobilization of energy resources take place. However, if the stress factor has a long-term effect, the cells begin the processes of lipid peroxidation (LPO), inhibition of energy production and reduction of protein synthesis with its subsequent destruction. Under conditions of excessive stress, there is a balance between antioxidant activity (AOA) and LPO, which is necessary to maintain normal cell function. Oxidation intermediates can serve as inducers and mediators of stress. Phytovirus infection can lead to pathological changes in the body of a plant. The progression of the infectious process in the body of the affected plant is associated with stress reactions and disruption of its normal viability.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> We are aimed to assess the degree of progress of stress reactions caused by biotic stressors in control and transgenic (with <em>ZRNase II</em> gene) petunia plants.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was used to infect petunia plants. The degree of progress of stress reactions in transgenic petunia plants with the <em>ZRNase II</em> gene before and after infection with TMV was studied by POL and AOA indicators. Two genetically distinct lines of petunia (M1 and P5) were used to obtained transgenic plants. To assess the progress of LPO, the accumulation of initial and final products (diene conjugates and malonic dialdehyde) was determined.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> After the plants transformation, changes in the content of LPO products in leaf tissues were observed. Transgenic plants had a 10–15% higher content of LPO products, which may indicate that the transformation, in some cases, can lead to the progress of stress reactions in plants. Infection with TMV has contributed to the intensification of processes related to the protection of plants from the effects of negative factors. Studies of total AOA have shown that transgenic plants after infection had significantly higher levels (18–30%) of AOA compared with controls, which may be evidence of their increased viability under stress.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The positional effect of T-DNA incorporation in genetic transformation may be a stressor for the plant. Transgenic lines differ in terms of LPO and AOA from non-transgenic lines and from each other. After infection with TMV, a 4-fold decrease in AOA was observed in the plants. Effective expression of the ZRNase II gene helps to reduce viral load in certain lines. Lines M1.2 and P5.3 are of greatest interest for further virological studies, as their AOA activity was 18–30% higher than in control plants, which may indicate resistance to viral infection.</p> Andrii Potrohov Olga Ovcharenko Daria Sosnovskaya Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s) 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 6 1 40 45 10.20535/ibb.2022.6.1.254464